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CX11x, CX31x, CX710 (Earlier Than V6.03), and CX91x Series Switch Modules V100R001C10 Configuration Guide 12

The documents describe the configuration of various services supported by the CX11x&CX31x&CX91x series switch modules The description covers configuration examples and function configurations.
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Huawei uses machine translation combined with human proofreading to translate this document to different languages in order to help you better understand the content of this document. Note: Even the most advanced machine translation cannot match the quality of professional translators. Huawei shall not bear any responsibility for translation accuracy and it is recommended that you refer to the English document (a link for which has been provided).
Configuring RIP

Configuring RIP

RIP is widely used on small-sized networks to discover routes and generate routing information.

Configuring Basic RIP Functions

Configuring basic RIP functions includes enabling RIP, specifying network segment, and setting RIP neighbors and RIP version on a Non-Broadcast Multiple Access (NBMA) network.

Pre-configuration Tasks

Before configuring basic RIP functions, complete the following task:

  • Configuring IP addresses for interfaces to ensure network-layer communication between neighbor nodes

Configuration Process

Enabling RIP is the prerequisite for setting RIP neighbors and RIP version on an NBMA network.

Enabling RIP

Context

Enabling RIP is the prerequisite for all RIP-related configurations. If you run the RIP commands in the interface view before enabling RIP, the configurations take effect only after RIP is enabled.

Procedure

  1. Run:

    system-view

    The system view is displayed.

  2. Run:

    rip [ process-id ] [ vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ]

    RIP is enabled and the RIP view is displayed.

    If a VPN instance is specified, the RIP process belongs to this VPN instance. If no VPN instance is specified, the RIP process belongs to a public network instance.

  3. (Optional) Run:

    description text

    Descriptions for RIP processes are configured.

  4. Run:

    commit

    The configuration is committed.

Enabling RIP on the Specified Network Segment

Context

After enabling RIP, you need to specify the network segment in which RIP runs. RIP runs only on the interfaces on the specified network segment. RIP does not receive, send, or forward routes on the interfaces that do not reside on the specified network segment.

Procedure

  • Enable RIP to send and receive routes on the specified network segment.
    1. Run the system-view command to enter the system view.
    2. Run the rip [ process-id ] command to enter the RIP view.
    3. (Optional) Run the undo verify-source command to disable source check for RIP packets.

      If the IP addresses on two ends of a P2P link belong to different network segments, the devices on the two ends cannot set up neighbor relationship unless source check is disabled.

    4. Run the network network-address command to enable RIP on the specified network segment.

      NOTE:
      • network-address specifies the address of a natural network segment.
      • An interface can be associated with only one RIP process.

    5. Run:

      commit

      The configuration is committed.

  • Enable RIP to send and receive routes on all network segments connected to the specified interface.
    1. Run the system-view command to enter the system view.
    2. Run the interface interface-type interface-number command to enter the interface view.
    3. On an Ethernet interface, run:

      undo portswitch

      The interface is switched to Layer 3 mode.

      By default, an Ethernet interface works in Layer 2 mode.

      If an Ethernet interface already has Layer 2 configuration, this command fails to be executed on the interface. Before running this command on the interface, delete all the Layer 2 configuration of the interface.

      NOTE:

      If many Ethernet interfaces need to be switched to Layer 3 mode, run the undo portswitch batch interface-type { interface-number1 [ to interface-number2 ] } &<1-10> command in the system view to switch these interfaces to Layer 3 mode in batches.

    4. Run the rip enable process-id command to enable RIP on all network segments connected to the interface.
    5. Run:

      commit

      The configuration is committed.

(Optional) Configuring RIP Neighbors on an NBMA Network

Context

Generally, RIP uses a broadcast or multicast address to send packets. If the link running RIP does not support broadcast or multicast packets, specify the RIP neighbors on the two ends of the link so that packets can be sent between the two ends in unicast mode.

Procedure

  1. Run:

    system-view

    The system view is displayed.

  2. Run:

    rip [ process-id ]

    The RIP view is displayed.

  3. Run:

    peer ip-address

    The RIP neighbor is configured.

  4. Run:

    commit

    The configuration is committed.

(Optional) Specifying the RIP Version

Context

RIP versions include RIP-1 and RIP-2. The two versions have different functions. The RIP version must be set on the device running RIP. You only need to set the global RIP version unless you want to specify a different RIP version on an interface.

Procedure

  • Configure the global RIP version.
    1. Run the system-view command to enter the system view.
    2. Run the rip [ process-id ] command to enter the RIP view.
    3. Run the version { 1 | 2 } command to set the global RIP version.

      NOTE:

      By default, an interface sends only RIP-1 packets and receives both RIP-1 and RIP-2 packets.

    4. Run:

      commit

      The configuration is committed.

  • Configure the RIP version for an interface.
    1. Run the system-view command to enter the system view.
    2. Run the interface interface-type interface-number command to enter the interface view.
    3. On an Ethernet interface, run:

      undo portswitch

      The interface is switched to Layer 3 mode.

      By default, an Ethernet interface works in Layer 2 mode.

      If an Ethernet interface already has Layer 2 configuration, this command fails to be executed on the interface. Before running this command on the interface, delete all the Layer 2 configuration of the interface.

      NOTE:

      If many Ethernet interfaces need to be switched to Layer 3 mode, run the undo portswitch batch interface-type { interface-number1 [ to interface-number2 ] } &<1-10> command in the system view to switch these interfaces to Layer 3 mode in batches.

    4. Run the rip version { 1 | 2 [ broadcast | multicast ] } command specify the RIP version on the specified interface.

      NOTE:
      • By default, an interface sends only RIP-1 packets and receives both RIP-1 and RIP-2 packets.
      • If no RIP version number is configured in the interface view, the global RIP version is used. The RIP version set on an interface takes precedence over the global RIP version.

    5. Run:

      commit

      The configuration is committed.

Checking the Configuration

Procedure

  • Run the display rip [ process-id | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] command to view the running status and configurations of RIP.
  • Run the display rip process-id route command to view all RIP routes learned from other devices.
  • Run the display default-parameter rip command to view default RIP configuration.
  • Run the display rip process-id statistics interface { all | interface-type interface-number [ verbose | neighbor neighbor-ip-address ] } command to view statistics on the RIP interface.

Configuring RIP-2

Different from RIP-1, RIP-2 supports Variable Length Subnet Mask (VLSM), Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR), and authentication to ensure higher security.

Pre-configuration Tasks

Before configuring RIP-2, complete the following task:

Configuration Process

You can perform the following configuration tasks (excluding the task of Checking the Configuration) in any sequence as required.

Configuring RIP-2 Route Summarization

Context

A large RIP network must maintain large RIP routing tables, which occupy a lot of memory on devices. Transmitting and processing the routing information requires many network resources. Route summarization can reduce the routing table size and minimize impact of route flapping on network.

RIP supports automatic summarization and manual summarization. Manual summarization takes precedence over automatic summarization. To advertise all subnet routes, disable automatic route summarization of RIP-2.

NOTE:

By default, if split horizon or poison reverse has been configured, classful route summarization is invalid. When summarized routes are sent to the natural network border, split horizon or poison reverse must be disabled.

Procedure

  • Configure automatic route summarization of RIP-2.
    1. Run the system-view command to enter the system view.
    2. Run the rip [ process-id ] command to enter the RIP view.
    3. Run the version 2 command to set the RIP version to RIP-2.
    4. Run the summary command to enable automatic route summarization.
    5. (Optional) Run the summary always command to enable automatic route summarization. This command can enable automatic summarization of RIP-2 no matter whether split horizon and poison reverse are enabled.

      NOTE:

      The summary command is used in the RIP view to enable classful network-based route summarization of RIP-2.

    6. Run:

      commit

      The configuration is committed.

  • Configure manual route summarization of RIP-2.
    1. Run the system-view command to enter the system view.
    2. Run the interface interface-type interface-number command to enter the interface view.
    3. On an Ethernet interface, run:

      undo portswitch

      The interface is switched to Layer 3 mode.

      By default, an Ethernet interface works in Layer 2 mode.

      If an Ethernet interface already has Layer 2 configuration, this command fails to be executed on the interface. Before running this command on the interface, delete all the Layer 2 configuration of the interface.

      NOTE:

      If many Ethernet interfaces need to be switched to Layer 3 mode, run the undo portswitch batch interface-type { interface-number1 [ to interface-number2 ] } &<1-10> command in the system view to switch these interfaces to Layer 3 mode in batches.

    4. Run the rip summary-address ip-address mask [ avoid-feedback ] command to configure RIP-2 to advertise the local summarization IP address.

      NOTE:

      The rip summary-address ip-address mask [ avoid-feedback ] command is run in the interface view to enable classless network-based route summarization of RIP-2.

    5. Run:

      commit

      The configuration is committed.

Configuring RIP-2 Packet Authentication

Context

On the RIP network requiring high security, configure RIP-2 packet authentication.

RIP-2 can perform simple authentication or MD5 authentication on protocol packets. Simple authentication uses the authentication key in plain text, so its security is lower than that of MD5.

If plain is selected during the configuration of the RIP-2 packet authentication mode, the password is saved in the configuration file in plain text. This brings security risks. It is recommended that you select cipher to save the password in cipher text.

Procedure

  1. Run:

    system-view

    The system view is displayed.

  2. Run:

    interface interface-type interface-number

    The interface view is displayed.

  3. On an Ethernet interface, run:

    undo portswitch

    The interface is switched to Layer 3 mode.

    By default, an Ethernet interface works in Layer 2 mode.

    If an Ethernet interface already has Layer 2 configuration, this command fails to be executed on the interface. Before running this command on the interface, delete all the Layer 2 configuration of the interface.

    NOTE:

    If many Ethernet interfaces need to be switched to Layer 3 mode, run the undo portswitch batch interface-type { interface-number1 [ to interface-number2 ] } &<1-10> command in the system view to switch these interfaces to Layer 3 mode in batches.

  4. Configure RIP-2 packet authentication.

    • Run the rip authentication-mode simple { plain plain-text | [ cipher ] password-key } command to set RIP-2 authentication to simple authentication.

    • Run the following commands to set RIP-2 authentication to MD5 authentication.

      • rip authentication-mode md5 usual { plain plain-text | [ cipher ] password-key }
      • rip authentication-mode md5 nonstandard { keychain keychain-name | { plain plain-text | [ cipher ] password-key } key-id }
      NOTE:

      If the MD5 authentication is used, you must set the packet format for MD5 authentication. If the usual keyword is specified, the MD5 cipher text authentication packets use the universal format (private standard). If the nonstandard keyword is specified, the MD5 cipher text authentication packets use the non-standard format (IETF standard).

    • Run the rip authentication-mode hmac-sha256 { plain plain-text | [ cipher ] password-key } key-id command to set RIP-2 authentication to HMAC-SHA256 authentication.

  5. Run:

    commit

    The configuration is committed.

Checking the Configuration

Procedure

  • Run the display rip [ process-id | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] command to view the running status and configurations of RIP.
  • Run the display rip process-id database [ verbose ] command to view all the active routes in the RIP database.
  • Run the display rip process-id route command to view all RIP routes learned from other devices.
  • Run the display rip process-id interface [ interface-type interface-number ] [ verbose ] command to view information about the RIP interface.

Avoiding Routing Loops

You can configure split horizon and poison reverse to prevent routing loops.

Pre-configuration Tasks

Before configuring split horizon and poison reverse, complete the following task:

Configuration Process

You can perform the following configuration tasks (excluding the task of Checking the Configuration) in any sequence as required.

Configuring Split Horizon

Context

Split horizon can prevent routing loops.

Procedure

  1. Run:

    system-view

    The system view is displayed.

  2. Run:

    interface interface-type interface-number

    The interface view is displayed.

  3. On an Ethernet interface, run:

    undo portswitch

    The interface is switched to Layer 3 mode.

    By default, an Ethernet interface works in Layer 2 mode.

    If an Ethernet interface already has Layer 2 configuration, this command fails to be executed on the interface. Before running this command on the interface, delete all the Layer 2 configuration of the interface.

    NOTE:

    If many Ethernet interfaces need to be switched to Layer 3 mode, run the undo portswitch batch interface-type { interface-number1 [ to interface-number2 ] } &<1-10> command in the system view to switch these interfaces to Layer 3 mode in batches.

  4. Run:

    rip split-horizon

    Split horizon is configured.

    NOTE:
    • By default, split horizon is disabled for an NBMA network.
    • If both split horizon and poison reverse are configured, only poison reverse takes effect.

  5. Run:

    commit

    The configuration is committed.

Configuring Poison Reverse

Context

Poison reverse can prevent routing loops.

Procedure

  1. Run:

    system-view

    The system view is displayed.

  2. Run:

    interface interface-type interface-number

    The interface view is displayed.

  3. On an Ethernet interface, run:

    undo portswitch

    The interface is switched to Layer 3 mode.

    By default, an Ethernet interface works in Layer 2 mode.

    If an Ethernet interface already has Layer 2 configuration, this command fails to be executed on the interface. Before running this command on the interface, delete all the Layer 2 configuration of the interface.

    NOTE:

    If many Ethernet interfaces need to be switched to Layer 3 mode, run the undo portswitch batch interface-type { interface-number1 [ to interface-number2 ] } &<1-10> command in the system view to switch these interfaces to Layer 3 mode in batches.

  4. Run:

    rip poison-reverse

    Poison reverse is enabled.

    NOTE:

    If both split horizon and poison reverse are configured, only poison reverse takes effect.

  5. Run:

    commit

    The configuration is committed.

Checking the Configuration

Procedure

  • Run the display rip process-id interface [ interface-type interface-number ] [ verbose ] command to view information about the RIP interface.

Controlling RIP Routing

You can control RIP routing in a network with a complicated environment.

Pre-configuration Tasks

Before configuring RIP route attributes, complete the following task:

Configuration Process

You can perform the following configuration tasks (excluding the task of Checking the Configuration) in any sequence as required.

Configuring RIP Preference

Context

When different routing protocols discover the routes to the same destination, set the RIP preference to select the required route.

Procedure

  1. Run:

    system-view

    The system view is displayed.

  2. Run:

    rip [ process-id ]

    The RIP view is displayed.

  3. Run:

    preference { preference | route-policy route-policy-name } *

    The RIP preference is set.

    By default, the RIP preference is 100.

  4. Run:

    commit

    The configuration is committed.

Configuring Additional Metrics of an Interface

Context

Configuring the additional metrics on a RIP interface can change the route selection sequence.

The additional metric is the metric (hop count) to be added to the original metric of a RIP route. You can specify commands to set additional metrics for incoming and outgoing RIP routes.

Procedure

  1. Run:

    system-view

    The system view is displayed.

  2. Run:

    interface interface-type interface-number

    The interface view is displayed.

  3. On an Ethernet interface, run:

    undo portswitch

    The interface is switched to Layer 3 mode.

    By default, an Ethernet interface works in Layer 2 mode.

    If an Ethernet interface already has Layer 2 configuration, this command fails to be executed on the interface. Before running this command on the interface, delete all the Layer 2 configuration of the interface.

    NOTE:

    If many Ethernet interfaces need to be switched to Layer 3 mode, run the undo portswitch batch interface-type { interface-number1 [ to interface-number2 ] } &<1-10> command in the system view to switch these interfaces to Layer 3 mode in batches.

  4. Run the following commands as required:

    • Run the rip metricin value command to set the additional metric for receiving routes.
    • Run the rip metricout { value | { acl-number | acl-name acl-name | ip-prefix ip-prefix-name } value1 } command to set the additional metric for advertising routes.
    NOTE:
    • The rip metricin command is used to add an additional metric to an incoming route. After this route is added to the routing table, its metric in the routing table changes. Running this command affects route selection on the local device and other devices on the network.
    • The rip metricout command is used to add an additional metric to an outgoing route. When this route is advertised, an additional metric is added to this route, but the metric of the route in the routing table does not change. Running this command does not affect route selection on the local device or other devices on the network.

  5. Run:

    commit

    The configuration is committed.

Setting the Maximum Number of Equal-Cost Routes

Context

By setting the maximum number of equal-cost RIP routes, you can change the number of routes for load balancing.

Procedure

  1. Run:

    system-view

    The system view is displayed.

  2. Run:

    rip [ process-id ]

    The RIP view is displayed.

  3. Run:

    maximum load-balancing number

    The maximum number of equal-cost routes is set. The default value is 16.

  4. Run:

    commit

    The configuration is committed.

Checking the Configuration

Procedure

  • Run the display rip [ process-id | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] command to view the running status and configurations of RIP.
  • Run the display rip process-id database [ verbose ] command to view all the active routes in the RIP database.
  • Run the display rip process-id route command to view all RIP routes learned from other devices.

Controlling RIP Route Advertisement

On a complex network, RIP route advertisement must be accurate.

Pre-configuration Tasks

Before controlling RIP route advertisement, complete the following task:

Configuration Process

You can perform the following configuration tasks (excluding the task of Checking the Configuration) in any sequence as required.

Configuring RIP to Advertise Default Routes

Context

In a routing table, a default route is the route to the network segment 0.0.0.0 (with the mask being 0.0.0.0). If the destination address of a packet does not match any entry in the routing table, the packet is sent along the default route.

Procedure

  1. Run:

    system-view

    The system view is displayed.

  2. Run:

    rip [ process-id ]

    The RIP view is displayed.

  3. Run:

    default-route originate [ cost cost | tag tag | { match default | route-policy route-policy-name } [  avoid-learning  ]  ]*

    The device is configured to originate a default route to neighbors.

  4. Run:

    commit

    The configuration is committed.

Disabling an Interface from Sending Update Packets

Context

Routing loops can be avoided by disabling interfaces from sending Update packets.

There are two ways to prevent interfaces from sending Update packets:
  • Suppress an interface in the RIP process view.
  • Disable an interface from sending RIP packets in the interface view.

The configuration in the RIP process view has a higher priority than the configuration in the interface view.

Procedure

  • Configuration in a RIP process view
    1. Run:

      system-view

      The system view is displayed.

    2. Run:

      rip [ process-id ]

      The RIP view is displayed.

    3. Run one of the following commands depending on the site requirements:

      To disable all interfaces from sending Update packets, run the
      silent-interface all
      command.
      To disable an interface from sending Update packets, run the
      silent-interface interface-type interface-number
      command.

      You can set an interface to silent so that it only receives Update packets to update its routing table. The silent-interface command takes precedence over the undo rip output command in the interface view.

      By default, an interface can receive and send Update packets.

      NOTE:

      If you want a small number of interfaces to send RIP packets in either broadcast or multicast mode, you can run the silent-interface all command first to prevent all interfaces from sending RIP packets in either broadcast or multicast mode and then run the silent-interface disable interface-type interface-number command to restore the capability to send RIP packets in either broadcast or multicast mode for the small number of interfaces.

    4. Run:

      commit

      The configuration is committed.

  • Configuration in the interface view
    1. Run:

      system-view

      The system view is displayed.

    2. Run:

      interface interface-type interface-number

      The interface view is displayed.

    3. On an Ethernet interface, run:

      undo portswitch

      The interface is switched to Layer 3 mode.

      By default, an Ethernet interface works in Layer 2 mode.

      If an Ethernet interface already has Layer 2 configuration, this command fails to be executed on the interface. Before running this command on the interface, delete all the Layer 2 configuration of the interface.

      NOTE:

      If many Ethernet interfaces need to be switched to Layer 3 mode, run the undo portswitch batch interface-type { interface-number1 [ to interface-number2 ] } &<1-10> command in the system view to switch these interfaces to Layer 3 mode in batches.

    4. Run:

      undo rip output

      The interface is disabled from sending RIP Update packets.

      By running this command, you can specify whether to send RIP Update packets on an interface. The silent-interface command takes precedence over the undo rip output command. By default, an interface is allowed to send RIP Update packets.

    5. Run:

      commit

      The configuration is committed.

Configuring RIP to Import Routes

Context

A RIP process can import the routes learned by other RIP processes or routing protocols.

Procedure

  1. Run:

    system-view

    The system view is displayed.

  2. Run:

    rip [ process-id ]

    The RIP view is displayed.

  3. (Optional) Run:

    default-cost cost

    The default metric for imported routes is set.

    If the metric of imported routes is not specified in step 4, the default metric is used.

  4. Run:

    import-route bgp [ permit-ibgp  ] [ cost { cost | transparent } | route-policy route-policy-name ] *

    Or

    import-route { { static | direct } | { { rip | ospf | isis } [ process-id ] } } [ cost cost | route-policy route-policy-name ] *

    External routes are imported to RIP.

    NOTE:

    When RIP imports IBGP routes, routing loops may occur. Configure this function with caution.

  5. (Optional) Run:

    filter-policy { acl-number | acl-name acl-name | ip-prefix ip-prefix-name } export [ protocol [ process-id ] | interface-type interface-number ]

    The imported routes are filtered before being advertised.

    The routing information advertised by RIP may contain the routing information imported from other protocols. You can use the protocol parameter to filter the routing information imported from a specified routing protocol. If the protocol parameter is not used, all the routes advertised by RIP are filtered, including the imported routes and the local routes (direct routes).

    NOTE:

    RIP-2 defines a 16-bit tag, while other routing protocols define 32-bit tags. If the routes of other protocols are imported to RIP and the tag is used in the routing policy, the tag value cannot exceed 65535. If the tag value exceeds 65535, the routing policy becomes invalid or the matching result is incorrect.

  6. Run:

    commit

    The configuration is committed.

Checking the Configuration

Procedure

  • Run the display rip [ process-id | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] command to view the running status and configurations of RIP.
  • Run the display rip process-id database [ verbose ] command to view all the active routes in the RIP database.
  • Run the display rip process-id route command to view all RIP routes learned from other devices.

Controlling Receiving of RIP Routing Information

To meet the requirements of complex networks, receiving of RIP routing information needs to be accurately controlled.

Pre-configuration Tasks

Before controlling receiving of RIP routing information, complete the following task:

Configuration Process

You can perform the following configuration tasks (excluding the task of Checking the Configuration) in any sequence as required.

Disabling an Interface from Receiving RIP Update Packets

Context

Routing loops can be avoided by disabling interfaces from receiving Update packets.

Procedure

  1. Run:

    system-view

    The system view is displayed.

  2. Run:

    interface interface-type interface-number

    The interface view is displayed.

  3. On an Ethernet interface, run:

    undo portswitch

    The interface is switched to Layer 3 mode.

    By default, an Ethernet interface works in Layer 2 mode.

    If an Ethernet interface already has Layer 2 configuration, this command fails to be executed on the interface. Before running this command on the interface, delete all the Layer 2 configuration of the interface.

    NOTE:

    If many Ethernet interfaces need to be switched to Layer 3 mode, run the undo portswitch batch interface-type { interface-number1 [ to interface-number2 ] } &<1-10> command in the system view to switch these interfaces to Layer 3 mode in batches.

  4. Run:

    undo rip input

    The interface is disabled from receiving RIP Update packets.

    By default, an interface is allowed to receive RIP update packets.

  5. Run:

    commit

    The configuration is committed.

Configuring RIP to Deny Host Routes

Context

In certain cases, the switch modules receives a large number of host routes with 32 bits from the same network segment. These host routes are unnecessary for routing, and they waste network resources. You can configure the switch modules to reject all the host routes it receives.

Procedure

  1. Run:

    system-view

    The system view is displayed.

  2. Run:

    rip [ process-id ]

    The RIP view is displayed.

  3. Run:

    undo host-route

    Host routes are not added to the RIP routing table.

    By default, host routes can be added to the routing table on the switch modules.

    NOTE:

    The undo host-route command is invalid for RIP-2.

  4. Run:

    commit

    The configuration is committed.

Configuring RIP to Filter Received Routes

Context

The filtering policy can be configured on the inbound interface by configuring the ACL and IP prefix list to filter received routes. Only the routes not filtered out by the filtering policy are added to the local routing table.

Procedure

  1. Run:

    system-view

    The system view is displayed.

  2. Run:

    rip [ process-id ]

    The RIP view is displayed.

  3. Depending on type of desired filtering, run one of following commands to configure RIP to filter the received routes:

    • Run:

      filter-policy { acl-number | acl-name acl-name } import [ interface-type interface-number ]

      The learned routing information is filtered based on an ACL.

    • Run:

      filter-policy gateway ip-prefix-name import

      The routing information advertised by neighbors is filtered based on the IP prefix list.

    • Run:

      filter-policy ip-prefix ip-prefix-name [ gateway ip-prefix-name ] import [ interface-type interface-number ]

      The routes learned by the specified interface are filtered based on the IP prefix list and neighbors.

  4. Run:

    commit

    The configuration is committed.

Checking RIP Packets with Metric 0

Context

By default, the device does not accept the RIP packets with metric 0. Therefore, the RIP interface discards all the RIP packets with metric 0. Some third-party devices on the network accept the RIP packets with metric 0. To ensure that the Huawei devices can work with the third-party devices, run the undo zero-metric-check command.

Procedure

  1. Run:

    system-view

    The system view is displayed.

  2. Run:

    rip [ process-id ]

    A RIP process is created and the RIP view is displayed.

  3. Run:

    undo zero-metric-check

    Interfaces are allowed to accept the RIP packets with metric 0.

  4. Run:

    commit

    The configuration is committed.

Checking the Configuration

Procedure

  • Run the display rip [ process-id | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] command to check the running status and configuration of RIP.
  • Run the display rip process-id database [ verbose ] command to check all activated RIP routes in the database.
  • Run the display rip process-id interface [ interface-type interface-number ] [ verbose ] command to check information about the RIP interface.
  • Run the display rip process-id neighbor [ neighbor-address neighbor-address ] [ verbose ] command to check information about RIP neighbors.
  • Run the display rip process-id route command to check all the RIP routes that are learned from other switch moduless.

Improving RIP Network Performance

You can adjust and optimize the RIP network performance by configuring RIP functions in special network environments, such as configuring RIP timers, setting the interval for sending packets, and setting the maximum number of packets to be sent.

Pre-configuration Tasks

Before improving RIP network performance, complete the following task:

Configuration Process

You can perform the following configuration tasks (excluding the task of Checking the Configuration) in any sequence as required.

Configuring RIP Timers

Context

RIP uses 4 timers: Update, Age, Suppress, and Garbage-collect. Changing the timer values affects the convergence speed of RIP routes.

Procedure

  1. Run:

    system-view

    The system view is displayed.

  2. Run:

    rip [ process-id ]

    The RIP view is displayed.

  3. Run:

    timers rip update age suppress garbage-collect

    RIP timers are configured.

    NOTE:
    • RIP timers take effect immediately after being changed.

    • Route flapping occurs if the values of the four times are set improperly. The relationship between the values is as follows: update must be smaller than age and suppress must be smaller than garbage-collect. For example, if the update time is longer than the aging time, and a RIP route changes within the update time, the switch modules cannot inform its neighbors of the change on time.

    • You must configure RIP timers based on the network performance and uniformly on all the devices running RIP. This avoids unnecessary network traffic or route flapping.

    By default, the Update timer is 30s; the Age timer is 180s; the Suppress timer is 0s; the Garbage-collect timer is four times the Update timer, namely, 120s.

    In practice, the Garbage-collect timer is not fixed. If the Update timer is set to 30s, the Garbage-collect timer may range from 90s to 120s.

    Before permanently deleting an unreachable route from the routing table, RIP advertises this route (with the metric being set to 16) by periodically sending Update packets four times. Subsequently, all the neighbors know that this route is unreachable. Because a route may not always become unreachable at the beginning of an Update period, the Garbage-collect timer is actually three or four times the Update timer.

  4. Run:

    commit

    The configuration is committed.

Setting the Interval for Sending Update Packets and Maximum Number of Sent Packets

Context

To limit memory resources occupied by RIP Update packets, set the interval for sending RIP Update packets and the maximum number of Update packets to be sent at a time to appropriate values.

Procedure

  1. Run:

    system-view

    The system view is displayed.

  2. Run:

    interface interface-type interface-number

    The interface view is displayed.

  3. On an Ethernet interface, run:

    undo portswitch

    The interface is switched to Layer 3 mode.

    By default, an Ethernet interface works in Layer 2 mode.

    If an Ethernet interface already has Layer 2 configuration, this command fails to be executed on the interface. Before running this command on the interface, delete all the Layer 2 configuration of the interface.

    NOTE:

    If many Ethernet interfaces need to be switched to Layer 3 mode, run the undo portswitch batch interface-type { interface-number1 [ to interface-number2 ] } &<1-10> command in the system view to switch these interfaces to Layer 3 mode in batches.

  4. Run:

    rip pkt-transmit { interval interval | number pkt-count | bandwidth bandwidth-value } *

    The interval for sending RIP Update packets and the maximum number of Update packets to be sent at a time are set.

  5. Run:

    commit

    The configuration is committed.

Setting the Maximum Length of RIP Packets

Context

By default, a RIP packet contains 25 routes. Increasing the maximum length of RIP packets can add more routes to the packets. Large RIP packets improve bandwidth use efficiency.

Before using the rip max-packet-length command to increase packet length, ensure that the peer interface accepts the RIP packets longer than 512 bytes.

After the packet length is increased, Huawei devices may fail to communicate with non-Huawei devices. Therefore, use this command with caution.

Procedure

  1. Run:

    system-view

    The system view is displayed.

  2. Run:

    interface interface-type interface-number

    The interface view is displayed.

  3. On an Ethernet interface, run:

    undo portswitch

    The interface is switched to Layer 3 mode.

    By default, an Ethernet interface works in Layer 2 mode.

    If an Ethernet interface already has Layer 2 configuration, this command fails to be executed on the interface. Before running this command on the interface, delete all the Layer 2 configuration of the interface.

    NOTE:

    If many Ethernet interfaces need to be switched to Layer 3 mode, run the undo portswitch batch interface-type { interface-number1 [ to interface-number2 ] } &<1-10> command in the system view to switch these interfaces to Layer 3 mode in batches.

  4. Run:

    rip max-packet-length { value | mtu }

    The maximum length of RIP packets is set.

    mtu indicates the maximum RIP packet length.

    By default, the maximum length of RIP packets is 512 bytes.

  5. Run:

    commit

    The configuration is committed.

Configuring RIP to Check the Validity of Update Packets

Context

Checking RIP Update packet validity improves network security. Validity check includes zero field check for RIP-1 packets and source address check for RIP Update packets.

  • In a RIP-1 packet, the values of some fields must be zero. These fields are zero fields. After zero field check is enabled, the device checks the zero fields in the RIP-1 packets and discards the packets in which the zero field values are not 0.
  • This command verifies the source IP address of the received RIP packet. Specifically, the command checks whether the IP address of the interface that sends the packet is in the same network segment as the IP address of the interface that receives the packet. If the addresses are not in the same network segment, the RIP packet will not be processed.

Procedure

  • Configure the zero field check for RIPv1 packets.
    1. Run:

      system-view

      The system view is displayed.

    2. Run:

      rip [ process-id ]

      The RIP view is displayed.

    3. Run:

      checkzero

      The zero field check is configured for RIP-1 packets.

      Configuring the zero field check is invalid in RIP-2.

    4. Run:

      commit

      The configuration is committed.

  • Configure the source address check for RIP Update packets.
    1. Run:

      system-view

      The system view is displayed.

    2. Run:

      rip [ process-id ]

      The RIP view is displayed.

    3. Run:

      verify-source

      The source IP address check is configured for RIP Update packets.

    4. Run:

      commit

      The configuration is committed.

Configuring RIP Triggered Update

Context

You can speed up network convergence by changing the values of triggered update timers.

Procedure

  1. Run:

    system-view

    The system view is displayed.

  2. Run:

    rip [ process-id ]

    The RIP process is created and the RIP view is displayed.

  3. Run:

    timers rip triggered  { minimum-interval minimum-interval | incremental-interval incremental-interval | maximum-interval maximum-interval } *

    RIP triggered update timers are configured.

  4. Run:

    commit

    The configuration is committed.

Setting the Maximum Number of RIP Routes

Context

You can set the maximum number of RIP routes to make full use of network resources and improve network performance.

Procedure

  1. Run:

    system-view

    The system view is displayed.

  2. Run:

    rip [ process-id ]

    The RIP process is created and the RIP view is displayed.

  3. Run:

    maximum-routes max-number [ threshold threshold-value ]

    The maximum number of routes is set.

  4. Run:

    commit

    The configuration is committed.

Checking the Configuration

Procedure

  • Run the display rip [ process-id | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] command to view the running status and configurations of RIP.
  • Run the display rip process-id database [ verbose ] command to view all the active routes in the RIP database.
  • Run the display rip process-id interface [ interface-type interface-number ] [ verbose ] command to view information about the RIP interface.
  • Run the display rip process-id neighbor [ verbose ] command to view the RIP neighbor configuration.
  • Run the display rip process-id route command to view all RIP routes learned from other devices.

Configuring BFD for RIP

On a network that runs high-rate data services, BFD for RIP can be configured to quickly detect and respond to network faults.

Pre-configuration Tasks

Before configuring BFD for RIP, complete the following task:

Configuration Process

You can perform the following configuration tasks in any sequence as required.

Configuring Dynamic BFD for RIP
Applicable Environment

Generally, RIP uses timers to receive and send Update messages to maintain neighbor relationships. If a RIP device does not receive an Update message from a neighbor after the Age timer expires, the RIP device will announce that this neighbor goes Down. The default value of the Age timer is 180s. If a link fault occurs, RIP can detect this fault after 180s. If high-rate data services are deployed on a network, a great deal of data will be lost during the aging time.

BFD provides millisecond-level fault detection. It can rapidly detect faults in protected links or nodes and report them to RIP. This speeds up RIP processes's response to network topology changes and achieves rapid RIP route convergence.

Either of the following methods can be used to configure BFD for RIP:
  • Enable BFD in a RIP process: This method is recommended when BFD for RIP needs to be enabled on most RIP interfaces.
  • Enable BFD on RIP interfaces: This method is recommended when BFD for RIP needs to be enabled on a small number of RIP interfaces.

Procedure

  • Enable BFD in a RIP process.
    1. Run:

      system-view

      The system view is displayed.

    2. Run:

      bfd

      BFD is enabled globally.

    3. Run:

      quit

      Return to the system view.

    4. Run:

      rip [ process-id ]

      The RIP view is displayed.

    5. Run:

      bfd all-interfaces enable

      BFD is enabled in the RIP process to establish a BFD session.

      If BFD is enabled globally, RIP will use default BFD parameters to establish BFD sessions on all the interfaces where RIP neighbor relationships are in the Up state.

    6. (Optional) Run:

      bfd all-interfaces  { min-rx-interval min-receive-value | min-tx-interval min-transmit-value | detect-multiplier detect-multiplier-value } *

      The values of BFD parameters used to establish the BFD session are set.

      BFD parameter values are determined by the actual network situation and network reliability requirement.
      • If links have a high reliability requirement, reduce the interval at which BFD packets are sent.
      • If links have a low reliability requirement, increase the interval at which BFD packets are sent.

      Running the bfd all-interfaces command changes BFD session parameters on all RIP interfaces. The default detection multiplier and interval at which BFD packets are sent are recommended.

    7. (Optional) Perform the following operations to prevent an interface in the RIP process from establishing a BFD session:

      • Run the quit command to return to the system view.
      • Run the interface interface-type interface-number command to enter the view of a specified interface.
        NOTE:

        On an Ethernet interface, run undo portswitch to switch the interface to Layer 3 mode.

      • Run the rip bfd block command to prevent the interface from establishing a BFD session.

    8. Run:

      commit

      The configuration is committed.

  • Enable BFD on RIP interfaces.
    1. Run:

      system-view

      The system view is displayed.

    2. Run:

      bfd

      BFD is enabled globally.

    3. Run:

      quit

      Return to the system view.

    4. Run:

      interface interface-type interface-number

      The view of the specified interface is displayed.

    5. On an Ethernet interface, run:

      undo portswitch

      The interface is switched to Layer 3 mode.

      By default, an Ethernet interface works in Layer 2 mode.

      If an Ethernet interface already has Layer 2 configuration, this command fails to be executed on the interface. Before running this command on the interface, delete all the Layer 2 configuration of the interface.

      NOTE:

      If many Ethernet interfaces need to be switched to Layer 3 mode, run the undo portswitch batch interface-type { interface-number1 [ to interface-number2 ] } &<1-10> command in the system view to switch these interfaces to Layer 3 mode in batches.

    6. Run:

      rip bfd enable

      BFD is enabled on the interface to establish a BFD session.

    7. (Optional) Run:

      rip bfd { min-rx-interval min-receive-value | min-tx-interval  min-transmit-value | detect-multiplier detect-multiplier-value } *

      The values of BFD parameters used to establish the BFD session are set.

    8. Run:

      commit

      The configuration is committed.

Checking the Configuration
After enabling BFD for RIP at both ends of a link,
  • Run the display rip process-id bfd session { interface interface-type interface-number | neighbor-id | all } command. You can see that the BFDState field value on the local switch modules is displayed Up.
Configuring Static BFD for RIP

Context

BFD provides link failure detection featuring light load and high speed. Static BFD for RIP is a mode to implement the BFD function.

Establishing BFD sessions between RIP neighbors can rapidly detect faults on links and speed up response of RIP to network topology changes.

Static BFD must be enabled using a command.

Procedure

  1. Enable BFD globally.
    1. Run:

      system-view

      The system view is displayed.

    2. Run:

      bfd

      BFD is enabled globally.

    3. Run:

      quit

      Return to the system view.

  2. Configure Static BFD.
    1. Run:

      bfd session-name bind peer-ip ip-address [ interface interface-type interface-number ] [ source-ip ip-address ]

      BFD binding is created.

      If a peer IP address and a local interface are specified, BFD detects only a single-hop link, that is, a route with the interface specified in the bfd command as the outbound interface and with the peer IP address specified in the peer-ip command as the next-hop address.

    2. Set discriminators.

      • Run:

        discriminator local discr-value

        The local discriminator is set.

      • Run:

        discriminator remote discr-value

        The remote discriminator is set.

      The local discriminator must be the remote discriminator of the device on the other end; otherwise, a BFD session cannot be established. The local and remote discriminators cannot be modified after being configured.

      NOTE:

      local discr-value set on the local device is the same as that of remote discr-value set on the remote device.remote discr-value set on the local device is the same as that of local discr-value set on the remote device.

    3. Run:

      quit

      Return to the system view.

  3. Enable static BFD on an interface.
    1. Run:

      interface interface-type interface-number

      The view of the specified interface is displayed.

    2. On an Ethernet interface, run:

      undo portswitch

      The interface is switched to Layer 3 mode.

      By default, an Ethernet interface works in Layer 2 mode.

      If an Ethernet interface already has Layer 2 configuration, this command fails to be executed on the interface. Before running this command on the interface, delete all the Layer 2 configuration of the interface.

      NOTE:

      If many Ethernet interfaces need to be switched to Layer 3 mode, run the undo portswitch batch interface-type { interface-number1 [ to interface-number2 ] } &<1-10> command in the system view to switch these interfaces to Layer 3 mode in batches.

    3. Run:

      rip bfd static

      Static BFD is enabled on the interface.

    4. Run:

      quit

      Return to the system view.

  4. Run:

    commit

    The configuration is committed.

Checking the Configuration
After configuring static BFD for RIP,
  • Run the display rip process-id interface [ interface-type interface-number ] verbose command to check BFD for RIP configurations on the specified interface.

Configuring the Network Management Function for RIP

By binding RIP to the MIB, you can view RIP information and configure RIP through the NMS.

Pre-configuration Tasks
Before configuring the network management function for RIP, complete the following task:

Procedure

  1. Run:

    system-view

    The system view is displayed.

  2. Run:

    rip mib-binding process-id

    RIP is bound to the MIB.

    This command is used to bind a RIP process ID to MIBs and specify the ID of the RIP process that accepts Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) requests.

  3. Run:

    commit

    The configuration is committed.

Checking the Configuration
  • Run the display current-configuration command to view the binding relationships of RIP.

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Updated: 2019-08-09

Document ID: EDOC1000041694

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