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Troubleshooting Guide

CloudEngine 16800, 12800, 12800E, 8800, 7800, 6800, and 5800 Series Switches

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Huawei uses machine translation combined with human proofreading to translate this document to different languages in order to help you better understand the content of this document. Note: Even the most advanced machine translation cannot match the quality of professional translators. Huawei shall not bear any responsibility for translation accuracy and it is recommended that you refer to the English document (a link for which has been provided).
A Device Cannot Learn OSPF Routes

A Device Cannot Learn OSPF Routes

Common Causes

This fault is commonly caused by the following:

  • A broadcast interface and a P2P interface can establish an OSPF neighbor relationship but cannot learn routes from each other.
  • The filter-policy import command is executed in the local OSPF process.
  • The filter import command is executed in the OSPF area to which the device belongs.
  • The filter export command is executed in another OSPF area.
  • The DN bit in Types 3, 5, and 7 LSAs of an OSPF process bound to a VPN instance is consistent with that of the local OSPF process.
  • The tag value in Types 5 and 7 LSAs of the OSPF process bound to a VPN instance is consistent with that of the local OSPF process.
  • An ABR is unreachable.
  • On the ABR, Summary LSAs of non-backbone areas do not participate in route calculation.
  • An ASBR is unreachable.
  • The FA address in Types 5 and 7 LSAs is unreachable.
  • The route to the FA address in Type 7 LSAs does not belong to the same area as Type 7 LSAs.

Troubleshooting Flowchart

If a device cannot learn OSPF routes, rectify the fault according to Figure 6-7.

Figure 6-7 Troubleshooting flowchart for a device cannot learn OSPF routes

Troubleshooting Procedure

Procedure

  1. Check detailed information about the IP routing table to determine whether inactive OSPF routes exist.

    Run the display ip routing-table ip-address verbose command in the user view to check whether the IP routing table contains inactive OSPF routes according to the Protocol and State fields.

    <HUAWEI> display ip routing-table 10.10.10.9 verbose
    Route Flags: R - relay, D - download to fib, T - to vpn-instance, B - black hole route                                              
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------                                                      
    Routing Table : _public_                                                                                                            
    Summary Count : 1                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                                        
    Destination: 10.10.10.9/32                                                                                                             
         : OSPF            Process ID: 1                                                                           
       Preference: 10                    Cost: 2                                                                                        
          NextHop: 10.0.0.1         Neighbour: 0.0.0.0                                                                                  
            : Active Adv             Age: 03h02m08s                                                                   
              Tag: 0                 Priority: high                                                                                     
            Label: NULL               QoSInfo: 0x0                                                                                      
       IndirectID: 0xE900016A                                                                                                           
     RelayNextHop: 0.0.0.0          Interface: Vlanif4000                                                                               
         TunnelID: 0x0                  Flags: D   
    • If the IP routing table contains inactive OSPF routes, routes of other routing protocols have a higher priority than OSPF routes on the device. For example, static routes have a default priority 60 and therefore preferred compared with OSPF external routes with a priority 150. When static routes and OSPF external routes have the same prefix and mask, static routes are added to the IP routing table as active routes, whereas OSPF external routes are added as inactive routes.
    • If the IP routing table does not contain inactive OSPF routes, go to step 2.

  2. Check the OSPF routing table multiple times to determine whether OSPF route flapping occurs.

    Run the display ospf routing command in the user view multiple times to check whether a specific route flaps according to the Age field.

    <HUAWEI> display ospf routing 10.10.10.9
              OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 192.168.2.200                                                                               
                                                                                                                                        
     Destination    : 10.10.10.9/32                                                                                                        
     AdverRouter    : 192.168.3.200            Area       : 0.0.0.0                                                                     
     Cost           : 2                        Type       : Stub                                                                        
     NextHop        : 10.0.0.1                 Interface  : Vlanif4000                                                                  
     Priority       : Medium                         : 03h02m56s 

  3. Check whether the filter-policy import command is executed in the local OSPF process.

    If the display ospf routing command displays routes and these routes do not flap, route filtering may be configured. Run the display this command in the OSPF process to check whether the filter-policy import command is configured.

    <HUAWEI> system-view  
    [~HUAWEI] ospf 1                                    
    [~HUWAI-ospf-1] display this
    #
    ospf 1 router-id 10.2.3.4
     area 0.0.0.0
      network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
    area 0.0.0.1
      network 10.1.2.0 0.0.0.255
    #
    return

    If the filter-policy import command is configured in the OSPF process, run the display this command in the system view to check whether a specific route is denied in the routing policy used in the filter-policy import command according to the deny and permit fields.

    [~HUAWEI] display this
    #
    ip ip-prefix in index 10  172.16.18.0 24
    #
    ip ip-prefix in index 11  0.0.0.0 0 less-equal 32
    #
    • If the route is not denied in the routing policy or the routing policy used in the filter-policy import command is not configured in the OSPF process, go to step 4.
    • If the route is denied in the routing policy, check whether the routing policy is configured correctly according to networking requirements.

  4. Check whether the network types of OSPF interfaces on both ends match.

    If the network types of OSPF interfaces on the local and peer devices do not match, the two devices can establish an OSPF neighbor relationship but cannot learn routes correctly. For example, the network type of the local OSPF interface is P2P, but that of the peer OSPF interface is broadcast.

    Run the display ospf interface command in the user view of the local and peer devices to check whether the network types of OSPF interfaces on the two devices match according to the Type field.

    <HUAWEI> display ospf 1 interface
                                                                                                                                        
    OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 10.1.1.2                                                                                              
                                                                                                                                        
     Area: 0.0.0.0          MPLS TE not enabled                                                                                         
                                                                                                                                        
     Interface                    IP Address              State    Cost    Pri                             
     Vlanif20                     10.1.1.2        Broadcast    DR       1       1                                                       
    • If the network types do not match, run the ospf network-type command in the OSPF interface view to configure the same network type as that of the peer OSPF interface.
      <HUAWEI> system-view
      [~HUAWEI] interface 10GE 1/0/0
      [~HUAWEI-10GE1/0/0] ospf network-type broadcast
    • If the network types match, go to step 5.

  5. Check whether the LSDB of the local OSPF process contains LSAs of routes.

    • OSPF intra-area routes

      If the device cannot learn OSPF intra-area routes, run the display ospf lsdb router command in the user view to check whether the LSDB of the local OSPF area contains Router LSAs of the routes according to the Link ID field.

      <HUAWEI> display ospf lsdb router
      OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 192.168.2.200                                                                                         
      Area: 0.0.0.0                                                                                                                       
      ----------------------------------------------------------------------------                                                        
                                                                                                                                          
        Type      : Router                                                                                                                
        Ls id     : 10.1.1.3                                                                                                               
        Adv rtr   : 10.1.1.3                                                                                                               
        Ls age    : 344                                                                                                                   
        Len       : 60                                                                                                                    
        Options   :  ABR  E                                                                                                               
        seq#      : 80000157                                                                                                              
        chksum    : 0x4011                                                                                                                
        Link count: 3                                                                                                                     
           : 10.0.0.2                                                                                     
           Data   : 10.0.0.1                                                                                                              
           Link Type: TransNet                                                                                                            
           Metric : 1                                                                                                                     
           Link ID: 10.10.10.127                                                                                                             
           Data   : 255.255.255.255                                                                                                       
           Link Type: StubNet                                                                                                             
           Metric : 0                                                                                                                     
           Link ID: 10.6.1.1                                                                                                              
           Data   : 10.6.1.2                                                                                                              
           Link Type: TransNet                                                                                                            
           Metric : 1          
      • If the LSDB does not contain Router LSAs of the routes, go to step 8.
      • If the LSDB contains Router LSAs of the routes:
        • If the device cannot learn OSPF inter-area routes, go to step 6.
        • If the device cannot learn O_ASE or O_NSSA routes, go to step 7.
    • OSPF inter-area routes

      If the device cannot learn OSPF inter-area routes, run the display ospf process-id lsdb summary ls-id command in the user view to check whether the LSDB of the local OSPF area contains Summary LSAs of the routes according to the Ls id field.

      <HUAWEI> display ospf 1 lsdb summary 192.168.1.0
      OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 10.20.1.2
      Area: 0.0.0.2
      ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 
      
             : Sum-Net
            : 192.168.1.0
           : 10.20.1.1
        Ls age    : 70
        Len       : 28
        Options   :  E
        seq#      : 80000001
        chksum    : 0x18D2
        Net mask  : 255.255.255.0
        Tos 0  metric: 1

      If two LSAs meet the format requirement, the Ls id field is filled according to the related algorithm. For example, 10.0.0.0/16 and 10.0.0.0/24 are generated into two Summary LSAs, of which the Ls id field is filled as follows:

      Type      : Sum-Net
             : 10.0.0.0
        Adv rtr   : 10.2.2.2
        Ls age    : 34
        Len       : 28
        Options   :  E
        seq#      : 80000001
        chksum    : 0xac9e
        Net mask  : 255.255.0.0
        Tos 0  metric: 0
        Priority  : Low
      
        Type      : Sum-Net
           : 10.0.0.255
        Adv rtr   : 10.2.2.2
        Ls age    : 4
        Len       : 28
        Options   :  E
        seq#      : 80000001
        chksum    : 0xac9e
        Net mask  : 255.255.255.0
        Tos 0  metric: 0
        Priority  : Low
      • If the LSDB does not contain Summary LSAs of the routes.
        • Check whether the filter import command is executed in the OSPF area. This command is used to filter incoming Summary LSAs of the area.
          [~HUAWEI] ospf 1             
          [~HUAWEI-ospf-1] display this
          #
          ospf 1 router-id 2.2.2.2
           area 0.0.0.0
            network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
           area 0.0.0.1
            filter ip-prefix FilterLSAsIn import
            network 10.2.2.0 0.0.0.255
          #
          return
          
          [~HUAWEI] display this
          #
          ip ip-prefix FilterLSAsIn index 10 deny 172.16.18.0 24
          #
          ip ip-prefix FilterLSAsIn index 11 permit 0.0.0.0 0 less-equal 32
          #
          
        • Check whether the filter export command is executed in this area for the ABR that advertises Summary LSAs. This command is used to filter outgoing Summary LSAs of the area.
          [~HUAWEI] ospf 1 
          [~HUAWEI-ospf-1] display this
          #
          ospf 1 router-id 10.1.1.1
           area 0.0.0.0
            network 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
           area 0.0.0.1
            
            network 10.2.2.0 0.0.0.255
          #
          return
          [~HUAWEI] display this
          #
          ip ip-prefix FilterLSAsOut index 10 deny 172.16.18.0 24
          #
          ip ip-prefix FilterLSAsOut index 11 permit 0.0.0.0 0 less-equal 32
          #
          
      • If the LSDB contains Summary LSAs of the routes:
        • If the device cannot learn OSPF inter-area routes, go to step 6.
        • If the device cannot learn O_ASE or O_NSSA routes, go to step 7.
    • O_ASE or O_NSSA routes

      If the device cannot learn O_ASE routes, run the display ospf process-id lsdb ase ls-id command in the user view of the local device. If the device cannot learn O_NSSA routes, run the display ospf process-id lsdb nssa ls-id command in the user view to check whether the LSDB of the local OSPF process contains AS-external LSAs or NSSA External LSAs of the routes according to the Ls id field. Additionally, check whether the Forwarding Address field displays 0.

      <HUAWEI> display ospf 100 lsdb ase 10.1.1.0
                OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 10.1.1.1
                        Link State Database
      
        Type      : External
        Ls id     : 10.1.1.0
        Adv rtr   : 10.2.2.2
        Ls age    : 569
        Len       : 36
        Options   :  E
        seq#      : 80000002
        chksum    : 0x90d0
        Net mask  : 255.255.255.0
        TOS 0  Metric: 1
        E type    : 2
         : 0.0.0.0
        Tag       : 1
        Priority  : Medium 
      <HUAWEI> display ospf 1 lsdb nssa 10.1.1.0
                OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 10.1.1.1
                          Area: 0.0.0.1
                        Link State Database
      
        Type      : NSSA
        Ls id     : 10.1.1.0
        Adv rtr   : 10.2.2.2
        Ls age    : 521
        Len       : 36
        Options   : None
        seq#      : 80000005
        chksum    : 0x9ea7
        Net mask  : 255.255.255.0
        TOS 0  Metric: 1
        E type    : 2
         : 10.1.1.2
        Tag       : 1
        Priority  : Medium
      • If the LSDB does not contain LSAs of the routes, go to step 8.
      • If the LSDB contains LSAs of the routes:
        • If the device cannot learn OSPF inter-area routes, go to step 6.
        • If the device cannot learn O_ASE or O_NSSA routes, go to step 7.

  6. Check whether the ABR is reachable and whether LSAs have the DN bit set.

    Inter-area routes are advertised by an ABR. Check whether the ABR is reachable from the local device.

    Run the display ospf process-id lsdb summary ls-id and display ospf abr-asbr commands in the user view of the local device to check whether the ABR that advertises Summary LSAs of inter-area routes is reachable according to the Ls id field and Destination/RtType field.

    <HUAWEI> display ospf 1 lsdb summary 10.1.1.0
              OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 10.1.1.1
                        Area: 0.0.0.0
                      Link State Database
    
      Type      : Sum-Net
          : 10.1.1.0
      Adv rtr   : 10.2.2.2
      Ls age    : 419
      Len       : 28
      Options   :  E
      seq#      : 80000001
      chksum    : 0x1d21
      Net mask  : 255.255.255.0
      Tos 0  metric: 1       
      Priority  : Medium
    <HUAWEI> display ospf abr-asbr
    OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 192.168.2.200                                                                                        
     Routing Table to ABR and ASBR                                                                                                      
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------                                                    
     Type             Area                  Cost Next-Hop            
     INTRA-AREA  10.1.1.3         0.0.0.0                  1 10.0.0.1        ABR   
    • If the display ospf abr-asbr command does not display information about the ABR that advertises inter-area routes, go to step 8.
    • If the display ospf abr-asbr command displays information about the ABR and the local device is the ABR, check whether the local OSPF area is the backbone area.
      • If the local OSPF area is a non-backbone area (the area ID is not 0), the ABR will not calculate Summary LSAs of the non-backbone area, as defined in RFC 2328. Therefore, it is normal that inter-area routes do not exist.
      • If the local OSPF area is the backbone area (with the area ID 0), go to step 8.
    • If the display ospf abr-asbr command displays information about the ABR and the local OSPF process is bound to a VPN instance, check whether the vpn-instance-capability simple command is executed for this process.
      • If this command is executed, go to step 8.
      • If this command is not executed, check whether the Option field of Summary LSAs contains the DN bit.
        • If the Option field contains the DN bit, the OSPF process bound to a VPN instance will not calculate the Summary LSAs with the DN bit, as defined in RFC 2328. Therefore, it is normal that inter-area routes do not exist. If inter-area routes are required, you are advised to run the dn-bit-check disable summary command.
          [~HUAWEI] ospf 1
          [~HUAWEI-ospf-1] dn-bit-check disable summary          
          
        • If the Option field does not contain the DN bit, go to step 8.

  7. Check whether the ASBR is reachable and whether anti-loop detection is configured.

    O_ASE and O_NSSA routes are advertised by an ASBR. Check whether the ASBR is reachable from the local device.

    Run the display ospf process-id lsdb [ ase | nssa ] ls-id and display ospf abr-asbr commands in the user view of the local device to check whether the ASBR that advertises AS-External LSAs and NSSA External LSAs of inter-area routes is reachable according to the Ls id field and Destination/RtType field.

    <HUAWEI> display ospf 100 lsdb ase 10.1.1.0
              OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 10.1.1.1
                      Link State Database
    
      Type      : External
           : 10.1.1.0
      Adv rtr   : 10.2.2.2
      Ls age    : 569
      Len       : 36
      Options   :  E
      seq#      : 80000002
      chksum    : 0x90d0
      Net mask  : 255.255.255.0
      TOS 0  Metric: 1
      E type    : 2
      Forwarding Address : 0.0.0.0
      Tag       : 1
      Priority  : Medium 
    <HUAWEI> display ospf 1 lsdb nssa 10.1.1.0
              OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 10.1.1.1
                        Area: 0.0.0.1
                      Link State Database
    
      Type      : NSSA
          : 10.1.1.0
      Adv rtr   : 10.3.3.3
      Ls age    : 521
      Len       : 36
      Options   : None
      seq#      : 80000005
      chksum    : 0x9ea7
      Net mask  : 255.255.255.0
      TOS 0  Metric: 1
      E type    : 2
      Forwarding Address : 10.1.1.2
      Tag       : 1
      Priority  : Medium 
    <HUAWEI> display ospf abr-asbr
    OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 192.168.2.200                                                                                        
     Routing Table to ABR and ASBR                                                                                                      
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------                                                    
     Type             Area                  Cost Next-Hop           
     INTRA-AREA  10.1.1.3         0.0.0.0                  1 10.0.0.1        ABR
    • If the display ospf abr-asbr command does not display information about the ASBR that advertises external routes, go to step 8.
    • If the display ospf abr-asbr command display information about the ASBR and the Forwarding Address field of LSAs is not 0, check the reachability of a route to Forwarding Address and the route type.

      Run the display ospf routing forwarding-address command in the user view to check whether the reachable route exists.

      <HUAWEI> display ospf routing 10.1.1.9
      
                                                                                                                                         
                OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 192.168.2.200                                                                               
                                                                                                                                          
       Destination    : 10.1.1.9/32                                                                                                        
       AdverRouter    : 192.168.3.200            Area       : 0.0.0.0                                                                     
       Cost           : 2                        Type       : Stub                                                                        
       NextHop        : 10.0.0.1                 Interface  : Vlanif4000                                                                  
       Priority       : Medium                   Age        : 02h59m45s
      
      • If no reachable route exists, go to step 8.
      • If such routes exist, but the Type field displays Type1 or Type2, routes to the forwarding address are external routes. As defined in RFC 2328, routes to the non-0 forwarding address cannot be external routes, and OSPF will not calculate AS-External LSAs or NSSA External LSAs of these routes. Therefore, it is normal that inter-area routes do not exist.

      Routes to the forwarding address must belong to the same area as Type 7 LSAs, as defined in RFC 3101. If the area ID indicated by the Area field is different from that of Type 7 LSAs, OSPF will not calculate these Type 7 NSSA External LSAs. Therefore, it is normal that inter-area routes do not exist.

    • If the display ospf abr-asbr command displays information about the ASBR and the local OSPF process is bound to a VPN instance, check whether the vpn-instance-capability simple command is executed for this process.

      • If this command is executed, go to step 8.
      • If this command is not executed, check whether the Option field of AS-External LSAs or NSSA External LSAs contain the DN bit. If so, the OSPF process bound to a VPN instance will not calculate the External LSAs with the DN bit, as defined in RFC 2328. Therefore, it is normal that inter-area routes do not exist. If inter-area routes are required, you are advised to run the dn-bit-check disable command.

        [~HUAWEI] ospf 1
        [~HUAWEI-ospf-1] dn-bit-check disable ase                         
        

      If the Option field does not contain the DN bit, run the display ospf brief command to check whether the tag value of the AS-External LSAs or NSSA External LSAs of the local OSPF process is the same as that of the OSPF process bound to a VPN instance.

      <HUAWEI> display ospf brief
                                                                                                                                          
       OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 10.1.1.2                                                                                             
                                                                                                                                          
       RouterID: 10.1.1.2          Border Router:                                                                                         
       Multiple VPN instance is not enabled                                                                                               
       Global DS-TE Mode: Non-Standard IETF Mode                                                                                          
       Graceful-restart capability is disabled                                                                                            
       Helper support capability is not configured                                                                                        
       Applications Supported       : MPLS Traffic-Engineering                                                                            
       SPF schedule interval        : Max 10000ms, Start 500ms, Hold 1000ms                                                               
             : Metric: 1 Tag: 1 Type: 2                                                                
      ...
      • If the tag values are the same, as defined in RFC 2328, the OSPF process bound to a VPN instance will not calculate the AS-External LSAs or NSSA External LSAs with the same tag value as those of the local process. Therefore, it is normal that inter-area routes do not exist. If inter-area routes are required, change the tag value of routes in the local process to be different from generated external routes.
        [~HUAWEI] ospf 1
        [~HUAWEI-ospf-1] route-tag 100 
      • If the tag values are different, go to step 8.

  8. Collect the following information and contact technical support personnel.

    • Results of the preceding troubleshooting procedure
    • Configuration file, logs, and alarms of the device

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Updated: 2020-01-07

Document ID: EDOC1000060766

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