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S12700 V200R010C00 Configuration Guide - Ethernet Switching

This document describes the configuration of Ethernet services, including configuring link aggregation, VLANs, Voice VLAN, VLAN mapping, QinQ, GVRP, MAC table, STP/RSTP/MSTP, SEP, and so on.
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Principles

Principles

VLAN aggregation defines the super-VLAN and sub-VLAN. A sub-VLAN is an independent broadcast domain that contains only physical interfaces. A super-VLAN contains no physical interface and is used for creating a Layer 3 VLANIF interface. By mapping a super-VLAN to sub-VLANs, VLAN aggregation associates the Layer 3 VLANIF interface with physical interfaces so that all sub-VLANs share one gateway to communicate with an external network. In addition, proxy ARP can be used to implement Layer 3 connectivity between sub-VLANs.

Implementation

The super-VLAN and sub-VLAN are different from common VLANs that contain a Layer 3 logical interface and multiple physical interfaces.

  • Sub-VLAN: contains only physical interfaces, and is used to isolate broadcast domains. A sub-VLAN cannot be used to create a Layer 3 VLANIF interface. Hosts in each sub-VLAN use the VLANIF interface of the associated super-VLAN to communicate with external devices over Layer 3.
  • Super-VLAN: is only used for creating a Layer 3 VLANIF interface and contains no physical interfaces. Its IP address is used as the subnet gateway. A VLANIF interface in a super-VLAN is Up as long as a physical interface in any associated sub-VLAN is Up. This is unlike a VLANIF interface, which is Up as long as a physical interface is Up.

A super-VLAN can contain one or more sub-VLANs. A sub-VLAN does not occupy an independent subnet. In a super-VLAN, the IP address of a host is the same subnet segment as the super-VLAN regardless of which sub-VLAN belongs to. Therefore, sub-VLANs share the same gateway.

Sub-VLANs share one gateway address to reduce the number of subnet IDs, subnet default gateway addresses, and directed broadcast IP addresses used. This allows different broadcast domains to use the same subnet address, allows for flexible addressing, and conserves IP addresses.

Introduction to VLAN Aggregation shows an example network topology. VLAN 10 is configured as the super-VLAN and assigned the subnet address 10.1.1.0/24. VLAN 2, VLAN 3, and VLAN 4 are configured as sub-VLANs of super-VLAN 10.

Figure 5-2  Networking of VLAN aggregation

Sub-VLAN 2, sub-VLAN 3, and sub-VLAN 4 share a subnet (10.1.1.1/24). The subnet ID (10.1.1.0), default gateway address (10.1.1.1), and directed broadcast address of the subnet (10.1.1.255) cannot be used as host IP addresses. VLAN aggregation allows the switch to assign IP addresses to hosts in sub-VLANs according to the actual number of hosts. For example, when sub-VLAN 2 requires 10 addresses, 10.1.1.2-10.1.1.11 are assigned to sub-VLAN 2.

Communication Between Sub-VLANs

VLAN aggregation allows different sub-VLANs to use IP addresses on the same network segment, but cannot implement Layer 3 forwarding between sub-VLANs. In a super-VLAN, hosts in all sub-VLANs use IP addresses on the same network segment and share a gateway address. However, hosts in different sub-VLANs can use only Layer 2 forwarding and cannot communicate with each other over Layer 3.

To address this issue, configure proxy ARP.

NOTE:

For details about proxy ARP, see Proxy ARP in "ARP Configuration" in the S12700 V200R010C00 Configuration Guide - IP Services.

Figure 5-2 shows an example of using proxy ARP to implement Layer 3 communication between sub-VLANs. To allow Host_1 in sub-VLAN 2 to communicate with Host_2 in sub-VLAN 3, enable proxy ARP on the VLANIF interface of super-VLAN 10.

Figure 5-3  Using proxy ARP to implement Layer 3 communication between sub-VLANs

Host_1 in sub-VLAN 2 communicates with Host_2 in sub-VLAN 3 as follows (assume that the ARP table of Host_1 in sub-VLAN 2 has no entry for Host_2 in sub-VLAN 3):

  1. Host_1 compares the IP address of Host_2 in sub-VLAN 3 with its IP address, and finds that both IP addresses are on the same network segment 10.1.1.0/24. However, the ARP table of Host_1 has no entry for Host_2 in sub-VLAN 3.
  2. Host_1 broadcasts an ARP Request packet with the destination IP address of 10.1.1.12 to request the MAC address of Host_2.
  3. The Layer 3 switch (gateway) is enabled with proxy ARP between sub-VLANs. After receiving the ARP Request packet from Host_1 in sub-VLAN 2, the Layer 3 switch searches its routing table for the destination IP address in the ARP Request packet. The Layer 3 switch finds a matched route in its routing table where the next-hop address is the directly connected network segment (10.1.1.0/24 of VLANIF 10). The Layer 3 switch then broadcasts an ARP Request packet to all sub-VLANs in super-VLAN 10, requesting the MAC address of Host_2.
  4. After receiving the ARP Request packet, Host_2 sends an ARP Reply packet.
  5. After receiving the ARP Reply packet, the Layer 3 switch encapsulates the ARP Reply packet with its MAC address and sends it to Host_1.
  6. Subsequent packets sent by Host_1 to Host_2 are first sent to the gateway. The gateway then forwards the packets across Layer 3.

The packets sent by Host_2 to Host_1 are processed in the same way as the packets sent by Host_1 to Host_2.

Layer 3 Communication Between Hosts in Sub-VLANs and on an External Network

In Figure 5-4, user hosts and servers are on different network segments, sub-VLANs 2 to 4 and VLAN 10 are configured on Switch_1, and VLAN 10 and VLAN 20 are configured on Switch_2.

Figure 5-4  Layer 3 communication between hosts in sub-VLANs and on an external network

When Host_1 in sub-VLAN 2 wants to communicate with the server connected to Switch_2, the packet forwarding process is as follows (assume that a route to 10.1.2.0/24 has been configured on Switch_1, a route to 10.1.1.0/24 has been configured on Switch_2, and no Layer 3 forwarding entry exists on either switch):
  1. Host_1 compares the server's IP address (10.1.2.2) with its network segment 10.1.1.0/24 and finds that they are on different network segments. Host_1 then sends an ARP Request packet to its gateway to request the gateway's MAC address. The ARP Request packet carries an all-F destination MAC address and destination IP address 10.1.1.1.
  2. After receiving the ARP Request packet, Switch_1 searches its ARP table for a mapping between the super-VLAN and sub-VLANs. Switch_1 then sends an ARP Reply packet with the MAC address of VLANIF 4 (corresponding to super-VLAN 4) from an interface of sub-VLAN 2 to Host_1.
  3. After learning the gateway's MAC address, Host_1 sends a packet with the MAC address of VLANIF 4 (corresponding to super-VLAN 4) as the destination MAC address and a destination IP address of 10.1.2.2.
  4. After receiving the packet from Host_1, Switch_1 determines that the packet should be forwarded at Layer 3 according to the mapping between the super-VLAN and sub-VLANs and the destination MAC address. Switch_1 searches its Layer 3 forwarding table for a matching entry, but no entry is found. Switch_1 sends the packet to the CPU, and the CPU searches its routing table and obtains the next-hop address of 10.1.10.2 and the outbound interface of VLANIF 10. Switch_1 determines the outbound interface according to the ARP entry and MAC address entry, and sends the packet to Switch_2.
  5. Switch_2 sends the packet to the server though Layer 3 forwarding.
After receiving the packet from Host_1, the server sends a response packet with the destination IP address of 10.1.1.2 and the MAC address of VLANIF 20 on Switch_2 as the destination MAC address. Then the following process occurs:
  1. The response packet reaches Switch_1 through Layer 3 forwarding. When the response packet reaches Switch_1, the destination MAC address is changed to the MAC address of VLANIF 10 on Switch_1.
  2. After receiving the packet, Switch_1 determines that the packet should be forwarded at Layer 3 according to the destination MAC address. Switch_1 searches its Layer 3 forwarding table for a matching entry, but no entry is found. Switch_1 sends the packet to the CPU, and the CPU searches its routing table and obtains the next-hop address of 10.1.1.2 and the outbound interface of VLANIF 4. Switch_1 searches the mapping between the super-VLAN and sub-VLANs and determines that the packet should be sent to Host_1 from an interface in sub-VLAN 2 according to the ARP entry and MAC address entry.
  3. The response packet reaches Host_1.

Layer 2 Communication Between Hosts in Sub-VLANs and Other Devices

Figure 5-5 shows an example network for Layer 2 communication between hosts in sub-VLANs and other devices. In this example:
  • Sub-VLAN 2, sub-VLAN 3, and super-VLAN 4 are configured on Switch_1.
  • IF_1 and IF_2 on Switch_1 are access interfaces.
  • IF_3 is a trunk interface that allows both VLAN 2 and VLAN 3.
  • The interface of Switch_2 connected to Switch_1 is a trunk interface and allows both VLAN 2 and VLAN 3.
Figure 5-5  Layer 2 communication between hosts in sub-VLANs and on an external network

A tag with VLAN 2 is added to packets sent from Host_1 to Switch_1. Although sub-VLAN 2 belongs to super-VLAN 4, Switch_1 does not change the tag with VLAN 2 to a tag with VLAN 4 in packets. Therefore, packets sent from IF_3 of Switch_1 still carry VLAN 2.

Switch_1 does not send packets from VLAN 4. When another device sends packets from VLAN 4 to Switch_1, Switch_1 discards the packets because there is no physical interface corresponding to super-VLAN 4 on Switch_1. IF_3 on Switch_1 does not allow packets from super-VLAN 4. For other devices, only sub-VLAN 2 and sub-VLAN 3 are valid.

The communication between Switch_1 configured with VLAN aggregation and other devices is similar to normal Layer 2 communication without super-VLAN.

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Updated: 2019-08-21

Document ID: EDOC1000142081

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