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Configuration Guide - Ethernet Switching

CloudEngine 8800, 7800, 6800, and 5800 V200R003C00

This document describes the configuration of Ethernet services, including configuring MAC address table, link aggregation, VLANs, MUX VLAN, Voice VLAN, VLAN mapping, QinQ, GVRP, VCMP, STP/RSTP/MSTP, VBST, SEP, RRPP, ERPS, LBDT, and Layer 2 protocol transparent transmission.
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Basic Concepts of VLANs

Basic Concepts of VLANs

VLAN Frame Format

A conventional Ethernet frame is encapsulated with the Length/Type field for an upper-layer protocol following the Destination address and Source address fields, as shown in Figure 5-2.

Figure 5-2 Conventional Ethernet frame format

IEEE 802.1Q is an Ethernet networking standard for a specified Ethernet frame format. It adds a 4-byte field between the Source address and the Length/Type fields of the original frame, as shown in Figure 5-3.

Figure 5-3 802.1Q frame format

Table 5-1 describes the fields contained in a 802.1Q tag.
Table 5-1 Fields contained in an 802.1Q tag
Field Length Name Description
TPID 2 bytes Tag Protocol Identifier (TPID), indicating the frame type. The value 0x8100 indicates an 802.1Q-tagged frame. If an 802.1Q-incapable device receives an 802.1Q frame, it will discard the frame.
PRI 3 bits Priority (PRI), indicating the frame priority. The value ranges from 0 to 7. The greater the value, the higher the priority. These values can be used to prioritize different classes of traffic to ensure that frames with high priorities are transmitted first when traffic is heavy.
CFI 1 bit Canonical Format Indicator (CFI), indicating whether the MAC address is in canonical format. If the value is 0, the MAC address is in the canonical format. CFI is used to ensure compatibility between Ethernet networks and Token Ring networks. It is always set to zero for Ethernet switches.
VID 12 bits VLAN ID (VID), indicating the VLAN to which the frame belongs. VLAN IDs range from 0 to 4095. The values 0 and 4095 are reserved, and therefore VLAN IDs range from 1 to 4094 (VLANs 4064 to 4094 are default reserved VLANs. You can run the vlan reserved command to configure the reserved VLAN range).
Each frame sent by a 802.1Q-capable switch carries a VLAN ID. The following are the two types of Ethernet frames in a VLAN:
  • Tagged frames: frames with 4-byte 802.1Q tags.
  • Untagged frames: frames without 4-byte 802.1Q tags.

Link Types

As shown in Figure 5-4, there are the following types of VLAN links:

  • Access link: connects a host to a switch. Generally, a host does not know which VLAN it belongs to, and host hardware cannot distinguish frames with VLAN tags. Therefore, hosts send and receive only untagged frames.

  • Trunk link: connects a switch to another switch or to a router. Data of different VLANs is transmitted along a trunk link. The two ends of a trunk link must be able to distinguish frames with VLAN tags. Therefore, only tagged frames are transmitted along trunk links.

Figure 5-4 Link types

NOTE:
  • A host does not need to know the VLAN to which it belongs. It sends only untagged frames.
  • After receiving an untagged frame from a host, a switching device determines the VLAN to which the frame belongs. The determination is based on the configured VLAN assignment method such as port information, and then the switching device processes the frame accordingly.
  • If the frame needs to be forwarded to another switching device, the frame must be transparently transmitted along a trunk link. Frames transmitted along trunk links must carry VLAN tags to allow other switching devices to properly forward the frame based on the VLAN information.
  • Before sending the frame to the destination host, the switching device connected to the destination host removes the VLAN tag from the frame to ensure that the host receives an untagged frame.

Generally, only tagged frames are transmitted on trunk links; only untagged frames are transmitted on access links. In this manner, switching devices on the network can properly process VLAN information and hosts are not concerned about VLAN information.

Port Types

After the 802.1Q defines VLAN frames, ports can be classified into four types:

  • Access port

    As shown in Figure 5-4, an access port on a switch connects to the port on a host. The access port can only connect to an access link. Only the VLAN whose ID is the same as the default VLAN ID is allowed on the access port. Ethernet frames sent from the access port are untagged frames.

  • Trunk port

    As shown in Figure 5-4, a trunk port on a switch connects to another switch. It can only connect to a trunk link. Multiple tagged VLAN frames are allowed on the trunk port.

  • Hybrid port

    As shown in Figure 5-5, a hybrid port on a switch can connect either to a host or to another switch. A hybrid port can connect either to an access link or to a trunk link. The hybrid port allows multiple VLAN frames and removes tags from some VLAN frames on the outbound port.

    Figure 5-5 Port types

  • QinQ port

    QinQ ports are enabled with the IEEE 802.1 QinQ protocol. A QinQ port adds a tag to a single-tagged frame and supports a maximum of 4094 x 4094 VLAN tags, which meets the requirement for the VLAN quantity.

    Figure 5-6 shows the format of a QinQ frame. The outer tag is often called the public tag and carries the VLAN ID of the public network, whereas the inner tag is often called the private tag and carries the VLAN ID of the private network.

Figure 5-6 Format of a QinQ frame

For details on the QinQ protocol, see QinQ.

Default VLAN

The default VLAN ID of an interface is called the port default VLAN ID (PVID). The meaning of the default VLAN varies according to the port type.

For details on different PVIDs and methods of processing Ethernet frames, see Frame processing based on the port type.

VLAN Assignment

VLAN assignment is a basic VLAN configuration. Users in the same VLAN can communicate with each other. Table 5-2 shows the VLAN assignment methods and their usage scenarios.

Table 5-2 Differences between VLAN assignment modes

VLAN Assignment Mode

Principle

Advantage

Disadvantage

VLAN assignment based on interface

In this mode, VLANs are classified based on interface numbers of the switch.

The network administrator configures a port VLAN ID (PVID), that is, default VLAN ID, for each port on the switching device. That is, a port belongs to a VLAN by default.

  • When a data frame reaches a port, it is marked with the PVID if the data frame carries no VLAN tag and the port is configured with a PVID.
  • If the data frame carries a VLAN tag, the switching device will not add a VLAN tag to the data frame even if the port is configured with a PVID.

Different types of ports process VLAN frames in different manners.

It is simple to define VLAN members.

VLANs must be re-configured when VLAN members change locations.

VLAN assignment based on MAC addresses

In this mode, VLANs are classified based on the MAC addresses of network interface cards (NICs). The network administrator configures the mappings between MAC addresses and VLAN IDs.

In this case, when a switching device receives an untagged packet, it searches the MAC-VLAN table for a tag to be added to the packet according to the MAC address of the packet.

When the physical locations of users change, you do not need to re-configure VLANs for the users. This improves the security of users and increases the flexibility of user access.

  • This mode is applicable to only a simple networking environment where the NIC seldom changes.

  • In addition, all members on the network must be pre-defined.

VLAN assignment based on IP subnets

When receiving an untagged packet, a switching device adds a VLAN tag to the packet based on the source IP address of the packet.

Packets sent from specified network segments or IP addresses are transmitted in specific VLANs. This facilitates management.

This mode is applicable to the networking environment where users are distributed in an orderly manner and multiple users are on the same network segment.

Protocol-based VLAN assignment

VLANs are assigned based on protocol (suite) types and encapsulation formats of frames.

A network administrator preconfigures mappings between protocol types and VLAN IDs. When receiving an untagged frame, the switch adds the VLAN tag mapping the protocol type of the frame to the frame. The frame is then transmitted in the specified VLAN.

This mode binds service types to VLANs, facilitating management and maintenance.

  • The network administrator must preconfigure mappings between all protocol types and VLAN IDs.
  • The switch needs to analyze protocol address formats and convert the formats, which consumes excessive resources. Therefore, this mode slows down switch response time.
The switch supports multiple VLAN assignment modes, the priority is of MAC address-based VLAN assignment or IP subnet-based VLAN assignment, protocol-based VLAN assignment, interface-based VLAN assignment in a descending order.
  • If packets match both MAC address-based VLAN assignment and IP subnet-based VLAN assignment, by default, MAC address-based VLAN assignment is preferentially adopted. Alternatively, you can run commands to change priorities of these two VLAN assignment modes to select a VLAN assignment mode.

  • Interface-based VLAN assignment has the lowest priority and is the most common VLAN assignment mode.

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Updated: 2019-05-08

Document ID: EDOC1100004351

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