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NE40E V800R010C10SPC500 Configuration Guide - QoS 01

This is NE40E V800R010C10SPC500 Configuration Guide - QoS
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Introduction to Traffic Policing

Introduction to Traffic Policing

Traffic policing is one of key factors in implementing QoS

Overview

Traffic policing controls the rate of incoming packets to ensure that network resources are properly allocated. If the traffic rate of a connection exceeds the specifications on an interface, traffic policing allows the interface to drop excess packets or re-mark the packet priority to maximize network resource usage and protect carriers' profits. An example of this process is restricting the rate of HTTP packets to 50% of the network bandwidth)

Traffic policing implements the QoS requirements defined in the service level agreement (SLA). The SLA contains parameters, such as the Committed Information Rate (CIR), Peak Information Rate (PIR), Committed Burst Size (CBS), and Peak Burst Size (PBS) to monitor and control incoming traffic. The device performs Pass, Drop, or Markdown actions for the traffic exceeding the specified limit. Markdown means that packets are marked with a lower service class or a higher drop precedence so that these packets are preferentially dropped when traffic congestion occurs. This measure ensures that the packets conforming to the SLA can have the services specified in the SLA.

Traffic policing uses committed access rate (CAR) to control traffic. CAR uses token buckets to meter the traffic rate. Then preset actions are implemented based on the metering result. These actions include:
  • Pass: forwards the packets conforming to the SLA.
  • Discard: drops the packets exceeding the specified limit.
  • Re-mark: re-marks the packets whose traffic rate is between the CIR and PIR with a lower priority and allows these packets to be forwarded.

Traffic Policing Applications

Traffic policing mainly applies to DS ingress node. Packets that exceed the SLA are dropped, or re-marked to ensure that packets conforming to the SLA are provided with guaranteed services. Figure 3-1 shows typical networking.
Figure 3-1 Application 1

As shown in Figure 3-2, a NE40E connects a wide area network (WAN) and a local area network (LAN). The LAN bandwidth (100 Mbit/s) is higher than the WAN bandwidth (2 Mbit/s). When a LAN user attempts to send a large amount of data to a WAN, the NE40E at the network edge is prone to traffic congestion. Traffic policing can be configured on the NE40E at the network edge to restrict the traffic rate, preventing traffic congestion.
Figure 3-2 Application 2

Interface-based Traffic Policing

Interface-based traffic policing controls all traffic that enters an interface and does not identify the packet types. As shown in Figure 3-3, a NE40E at an ISP network edge connects to three user networks. The SLA defines that each user can send traffic at a maximum rate of 256 kbit/s. However, burst traffic is sometimes transmitted. Traffic policing can be configured on the ingress NE40E at the ISP network edge to restrict the traffic rate to a maximum of 256 kbit/s. All excess traffic over 256 kbit/s will be dropped.

Figure 3-3 Interface-based traffic policing

Class-based Traffic Policing

The class-based traffic policy controls the rate of one or more types of packets that enter an interface but not all types of packets.

As shown in Figure 3-4, traffic from the three users at 1.1.1.1, 1.1.1.2, and 1.1.1.3 is converged to a NE40E. The SLA defines that each user can send traffic at a maximum rate of 256 kbit/s. However, burst traffic is sometimes transmitted. When a user sends a large amount of data, services of other users may be affected even if they send traffic at a rate lower than 256 kbit/s. To resolve this problem, configure traffic classification and traffic policing based on source IP addresses on the inbound interface of the device to control the rate of traffic sent from different users. The device drops excess traffic when the traffic rate of a certain user exceeds 256 kbit/s.

Figure 3-4 Class-based traffic policing

NOTE:
Multiple traffic policies must be configured on the inbound interface to implement different rate limits for data flows sent from different source hosts. The traffic policies take effect in the configuration order. The first traffic policy configured is the first to effect first after data traffic reaches the interface.

Combination of Traffic Policing and Other QoS Policies

Traffic policing and other QoS components can be implemented together to guarantee QoS network-wide.

Figure 3-5 shows how traffic policing works with congestion avoidance to control traffic. In this networking, four user networks connect to a NE40E at the ISP network edge. The SLA defines that each user can send FTP traffic at a maximum rate of 256 kbit/s. However, burst traffic is sometimes transmitted at a rate even higher than 1 Mbit/s. When a user sends a large amount of FTP data, FTP services of other users may be affected even if they send traffic at a rate lower than 256 kbit/s. To resolve this problem, configure class-based traffic policing on each inbound interface of the NE40E to monitor the FTP traffic and re-mark the DSCP values of packets. The traffic at a rate lower than or equal to 256 kbit/s is re-marked AF11. The traffic at a rate ranging from 256 kbit/s to 1 Mbit/s is re-marked AF12. The traffic at a rate higher than 1 Mbit/s is re-marked AF13. Weighted Random Early Detection (WRED) is configured as a drop policy for these types of traffic on outbound interfaces to prevent traffic congestion. WRED drops packets based on the DSCP values. Packets in AF13 are first dropped, and then AF12 and AF11 in sequence.

Figure 3-5 Combination of traffic policing and congestion avoidance

Statistics Collection of Traffic Policing

Traffic that enters a network must be controlled, and traffic statistics must be collected. Traditional statistics collection has the following defects:

  • For upstream traffic, only statistics about packets after a CAR operation is implemented can be collected. Statistics about the actual traffic in need and the packet loss during CAR are not provided.
  • For downstream traffic, only statistics about packets after a CAR operation is implemented can be collected. Statistics about the forwarded and dropped packets are not provided.

Carriers require statistics about traffic that has been implemented with CAR to analyze user traffic beyond the specifications, which provides a basis for persuasion of purchasing a higher bandwidth. Using the interface-based CAR statistics collection function, NE40Es can collect and record statistics about the upstream traffic after a CAR operation (the actual access traffic of an enterprise user or an Internet bar), as well as statistics about the forwarded and dropped downstream packets after a CAR operation.

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Updated: 2019-01-03

Document ID: EDOC1100055024

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