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NE20E-S V800R010C10SPC500 Feature Description - IP Multicast 01

This is NE20E-S V800R010C10SPC500 Feature Description - IP Multicast

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MLD Snooping

MLD Snooping

Definition

Multicast Listener Discovery Snooping (MLD snooping) is an IPv6 Layer 2 multicast protocol. The MLD snooping protocol maintains information about the outbound interfaces of multicast packets by snooping multicast protocol packets exchanged between the Layer 3 multicast device and user hosts. MLD snooping manages and controls multicast packet forwarding at the data link layer.

Purpose

Similar to an IPv4 multicast network, multicast data on an IPv6 multicast network (especially on an LAN) have to pass through Layer 2 switching devices. As shown in Figure 11-13, a Layer 2 switch locates between multicast users and the Layer 3 multicast device, Router.

Figure 11-13 MLD snooping networking

After receiving multicast packets from Router, Switch forwards the multicast packets to the multicast receivers. The destination address of the multicast packets is a multicast group address. Switch cannot learn multicast MAC address entries, so it broadcasts the multicast packets in the broadcast domain. All hosts in the broadcast domain will receive the multicast packets, regardless of whether they are members of the multicast group. This wastes network bandwidth and threatens network security.

MLD snooping solves this problem. MLD snooping is a Layer 2 multicast protocol on the IPv6 network. After MLD snooping is configured, Switch can snoop and analyze MLD messages between multicast users and Router. The Layer 2 multicast device sets up Layer 2 multicast forwarding entries to control forwarding of multicast data. In this way, multicast data is not broadcast on the Layer 2 network.

Principles

MLD snooping is a basic IPv6 Layer 2 multicast function that forwards and controls multicast traffic at Layer 2. MLD snooping runs on a Layer 2 device and analyzes MLD messages exchanged between a Layer 3 device and hosts to set up and maintain a Layer 2 multicast forwarding table. The Layer 2 device forwards multicast packets based on the Layer 2 multicast forwarding table.

On an IPv6 multicast network shown in Figure 11-14, after receiving multicast packets from Router, Switch at the edge of the access layer forwards the multicast packets to receiver hosts. If Switch does not run MLD snooping, it broadcasts multicast packets at Layer 2. After MLD snooping is configured, Switch forwards multicast packets only to specified hosts.

With MLD snooping configured, Switch listens on MLD messages exchanged between Router and hosts. It analyzes packet information (such as packet type, group address, and receiving interface) to set up and maintain a Layer 2 multicast forwarding table, and forwards multicast packets based on the Layer 2 multicast forwarding table.

Figure 11-14 Multicast packet transmission before and after MLD snooping is configured on a Layer 2 device

Concepts

As shown in Figure 11-15, Router connects to the multicast source. MLD snooping is configured on SwitchA and SwitchB. HostA, HostB, and HostC are receiver hosts.

Figure 11-15 MLD snooping ports

Figure 11-15 shows MLD snooping ports. The following table describes these ports.

Table 11-2 MLD snooping ports

Port Role

Function

Generation

Router port

Ports marked as blue points on SwitchA and SwitchB.

NOTE:

A router port is a port on a Layer 2 multicast device and connects to an upstream multicast router.

A router port receives multicast packets from a Layer 3 multicast device such as a designated router (DR) or MLD querier.

  • A dynamic router port is generated by MLD snooping. A port becomes a dynamic router port when it receives an MLD General Query message or IPv6 PIM Hello message with any source address except 0::0. The IPv6 PIM Hello messages are sent from the PIM port on a Layer 3 multicast device to discover and maintain neighbor relationships.

  • A static router port is manually configured.

Member port

Ports marked as yellow points on SwitchA and SwitchB.

A member port is a member of a multicast group. A Layer 2 multicast device sends multicast data to the receiver hosts through member ports.

  • A dynamic member port is generated by MLD snooping. A Layer 2 multicast device sets a port as a dynamic member port when the port receives an MLD Report message.

  • A static member port is manually configured.

The router port and member port are outbound interfaces in Layer 2 multicast forwarding entries. A router port functions as an upstream interface, while a member port functions as a downstream interface. Port information learned through protocol packets is saved as dynamic entries, and port information manually configured is saved as static entries.

Besides the outbound interfaces, each entry includes multicast group addresses and VLAN IDs.
  • Multicast group addresses can be multicast IP addresses or multicast MAC addresses mapped from multicast IP addresses. In MAC address-based forwarding mode, multicast data may be forwarded to hosts that do not require the data because multiple IP addresses are mapped to the same MAC address. The IP address-based forwarding mode can prevent this problem.
  • The VLAN ID specifies a Layer 2 broadcast domain. After multicast VLAN is configured, the inbound VLAN ID is the multicast VLAN ID, and the outbound VLAN ID is a user VLAN ID. If multicast VLAN is not configured, both the inbound and outbound VLAN IDs are the ID of the VLAN to which a host belongs.

Implementation

After MLD snooping is configured, the Layer 2 multicast device processes the received MLD protocol packets in different ways and sets up Layer 2 multicast forwarding entries.

Table 11-3 MLD message processing by MLD snooping

MLD Working Phase

MLD Message Received on a Layer 2 Device

Processing Method

General query

The MLD querier periodically sends General Query messages to all hosts and the router (FF02::1) on the local network segment, to check which multicast groups have members on the network segment.

MLD General Query message

A Layer 2 device forwards MLD General Query messages to all ports excluding the port receiving the messages. The Layer 2 device processes the receiving port as follows:
  • If the port is included in the router port list, the Layer 2 device resets the aging timer of the router port.
  • If the port is not in the router port list, the Layer 2 device adds it to the list and starts the aging timer.

Membership report

Membership Report messages are used in two scenarios:
  • Upon receiving an MLD General Query message, a member returns an MLD Report message.
  • A member sends an MLD Report message to the MLD querier to announce its joining to a multicast group.

MLD Report message

A Layer 2 device forwards an MLD Report message to all router ports in a VLAN. The Layer 2 device obtains the multicast group address from the Report message and performs the following operations on the port receiving the message:
  • If the multicast group matches no forwarding entry, the Layer 2 device creates a forwarding entry, adds the port to the outbound interface list as a dynamic member port, and starts the aging timer.
  • If the multicast group matches a forwarding entry but the port is not in the outbound interface list, the Layer 2 device adds the port to the outbound interface list as a dynamic member port, and starts the aging timer.
  • If the multicast group matches a forwarding entry and the port is in the router port list, the Layer 2 device resets the aging timer.
NOTE:

Aging time of a dynamic router port = Robustness variable × General query interval + Maximum response time for General Query messages

Leave of multicast members

There are two phases:
  1. Members send MLD Done messages to notify the MLD querier that the members have left a multicast group.
  2. Upon receiving the MLD Done message, the MLD querier obtains the multicast group address and sends a Multicast-Address-Specific Query/Multicast-Address-and-Source-Specific Query message to the multicast group.

MLD Leave message

The Layer 2 device determines whether the multicast group matches a forwarding entry and whether the port that receives the message is in the outbound interface list.
  • If no forwarding entry matches the multicast group or the outbound interface list of the matching entry does not contain the receiving port, the Layer 2 device drops the MLD Leave message.
  • If the multicast group matches a forwarding entry and the port is in the outbound interface list, the Layer 2 device forwards the MLD Leave message to all router ports in the VLAN.
The following assumes that the port receiving an MLD Leave message is a dynamic member port. Within the aging time of the member port:
  • If the port receives MLD Report messages in response to the Multicast-Address-Specific Query message, the Layer 2 device knows that the multicast group has members connected to the port and resets the aging timer.
  • If the port receives no MLD Report message in response to the Multicast-Address-Specific Query message, no member of the multicast group exists under the interface. Then the Layer 2 device deletes the port from the outbound interface list when the aging time is reached.

Multicast-Address-Specific Query/Multicast-Address-and-Source-Specific Query message

A Multicast-Address-Specific Query/Multicast-Address-and-Source-Specific Query message is forwarded to the ports connected to members of specific groups.
Upon receiving an IPv6 PIM Hello message, a Layer 2 device forwards the message to all ports excluding the port that receives the Hello message. The Layer 2 device processes the receiving port as follows:
  • If the port is included in the router port list, the device resets the aging timer of the router port.
  • If the port is not in the router port list, the device adds it to the list and starts the aging timer.
NOTE:

When the Layer 2 device receives an IPv6 PIM Hello message, it sets the aging time of the router port to the Holdtime value in the Hello message.

If a static router port is configured, the Layer 2 device forwards received MLD Report and Done messages to the static router port. If a static member port is configured for a multicast group, the Layer 2 device adds the port to the outbound interface list for the multicast group.

After a Layer 2 multicast forwarding table is set up, the Layer 2 device searches the multicast forwarding table for outbound interfaces of multicast data packets according to the VLAN IDs and destination addresses (IPv6 group addresses) of the packets. If outbound interfaces are found for a packet, the Layer 2 device forwards the packet to all the member ports of the multicast group. If no outbound interface is found, the Layer 2 device drops the packet or broadcasts the packet in the VLAN.

MLD Snooping Proxy

Principles

MLD snooping proxy can be configured on a Layer 2 device. The Layer 2 device then functions as a host to send MLD Report messages to the upstream Layer 3 device. This function reduces the number of MLD Report and MLD Done messages sent to the upstream Layer 3 device. A device configured with MLD snooping proxy functions as a host for its upstream device and a querier for its downstream hosts.

As shown in Figure 11-16, when Switch runs MLD snooping, it forwards MLD Query, Report, and Done messages transparently to the upstream Router. When numerous hosts exist on the network, redundant MLD messages increase the burden of Router.

With MLD snooping proxy configured, Switch can terminate MLD Query messages sent from Router and MLD Report/Done sent from downstream hosts. When receiving these messages, Switch constructs new messages to send them to Router.

Figure 11-16 Networking diagram of MLD snooping proxy

After MLD snooping proxy is deployed on the Layer 2 device, the Layer 3 device considers that it interacts with only one user. The Layer 2 device interacts with the upstream device and downstream hosts. The MLD snooping proxy function conserves bandwidth by reducing MLD message exchanges. In addition, MLD snooping proxy functions as a querier to process protocol messages received from downstream hosts and maintain group memberships. This reduces the load of the upstream Layer 3 device.

Implementation

A device that runs MLD snooping proxy sets up and maintains a Layer 2 multicast forwarding table and sends multicast data to hosts based on the multicast forwarding table. Table 11-4 describes how the MLD snooping proxy device processes MLD messages.

Table 11-4 received MLD message processing by MLD snooping proxy

MLD Message

Processing Method

MLD General Query message

The Layer 2 device forwards the message to all ports excluding the port receiving the message. The device generates an MLD Report message based on the group memberships and sends the MLD Report message to all router ports.

Multicast-Address-Specific Query/Multicast Address and Source Specific Query message

If the group specified in the message has member ports in the multicast forwarding table, the Layer 2 device responds with an MLD Report message to all router ports.

MLD Report message

  • If the multicast group matches no forwarding entry, the Layer 2 device creates a forwarding entry, adds the message receiving port to the outbound interface list as a dynamic member port, starts the aging timer, and sends an MLD Report message to all router ports.
  • If the multicast group matches a forwarding entry and the message receiving is in the outbound interface list, the device resets the aging timer.
  • If the multicast group matches a forwarding entry, but the port is not in the outbound interface list, the Layer 2 device adds the port to the list as a dynamic router port, and starts the aging timer.

MLD Done message

The Layer 2 device sends a Group-Specific Query message to the port that receives the MLD Done message. The Layer 2 device sends an MLD Done message to all router ports only when the last member port is deleted from the forwarding entry.

Translation
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Updated: 2019-01-03

Document ID: EDOC1100055119

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