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Configuration Guide - IP Routing 01

NE05E and NE08E V300R003C10SPC500

This is NE05E and NE08E V300R003C10SPC500 Configuration Guide - IP Routing
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Huawei uses machine translation combined with human proofreading to translate this document to different languages in order to help you better understand the content of this document. Note: Even the most advanced machine translation cannot match the quality of professional translators. Huawei shall not bear any responsibility for translation accuracy and it is recommended that you refer to the English document (a link for which has been provided).
Configuring IPv4 Static Route Detection

Configuring IPv4 Static Route Detection

With IPv4 static route detection, if a link through which an IPv4 static route travels fails, a rapid link switchover is performed, preventing lengthy service interruptions.

Usage Scenario

Unlike dynamic routes, static routes do not have a detection mechanism. As a result, administrator intervention is required if a fault occurs on the network. To prevent the need for administrator intervention, deploy IPv4 static route detection to implement automatic rapid link switchover if a link failure occurs. IPv4 static route detection prevents lengthy service interruptions.

The following IPv4 static route detection methods are available:

  • BFD for IPv4 static routes: After BFD for IPv4 static routes is configured, each static route can be bound to a BFD session. BFD for IPv4 static routes implements millisecond-level detection. BFD is classified as static BFD or dynamic BFD.
  • Network quality analysis (NQA) for IPv4 static routes: Although BFD for IPv4 static routes implements fast link fault detection, it cannot be deployed in some scenarios (when Layer 2 devices exist on the network, for example) because both ends of the link must support BFD. NQA for IPv4 static routes, however, can monitor the link status of a static route even when only one end supports NQA. NQA for IPv4 static routes implements second-level detection.
  • Association between Ethernet in the First Mile (EFM) and IPv4 static routes: After EFM OAM is enabled, EFM can be associated with IPv4 static routes. EFM for IPv4 static routes enables the system to respond to an interface Up or Down event that is triggered by changes in the EFM OAM extension status and determine whether to activate the static routes with this interface as their next hop outbound interface. This mechanism controls route advertisement and ensures that the traffic from the remote end can be correctly forwarded.
    NOTE:

    Only one of the IPv4 static route detection methods can be deployed. Therefore, choose one based on the live network requirements.

Pre-configuration Tasks

Before configuring IPv4 static route detection, configure link-layer protocol parameters and IP addresses for interfaces to ensure that the link layer protocol of each interface is Up.

Configuring Dynamic BFD for IPv4 Static Routes

Dynamic BFD for IPv4 static routes enables devices to fast detect link changes, improving network reliability.

Usage Scenario

To use BFD sessions to provide link detection for IPv4 static routes on the public network, you can bind IPv4 static routes to BFD sessions. One IPv4 static route can be bound to one BFD session.

Optimal IPv4 static routes are delivered to the forwarding table for packet forwarding. However, IPv4 static routes cannot detect the status of the link to the next hop. You can bind IPv4 static routes to BFD sessions. A BFD session can fast detect changes over a link and inform the routing management system of the changes. The routing management system immediately deletes the IPv4 static route that is bound to the BFD session from the forwarding table and recalculates another active route. In this manner, fast route convergence is implemented.

Pre-configuration Tasks

Before configuring dynamic BFD for static routes, configure parameters of the link layer protocol and IP addresses for interfaces and ensure that the link layer protocol on the interfaces is Up.

Procedure

  1. Run system-view

    The system view is displayed.

  2. Run bfd

    Global BFD is enabled on the node.

  3. Run quit

    Return to the system view.

  4. (Optional) Run ip route-static default-bfd [ min-rx-interval min-rx-interval ] [ min-tx-interval min-tx-interval ] [ detect-multiplier multiplier ]

    Global BFD parameters are configured for IPv4 static routes.

    By default, the values of the global BFD parameters min-rx-interval, min-tx-interval, and detect-multiplier are 50 ms, 50 ms, and 3, respectively.

  5. Run ip route-static bfd [ interface-type interface-number | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name ] nexthop-address [ local-address address ] [ min-rx-interval min-rx-interval ] [ min-tx-interval min-tx-interval ] [ detect-multiplier multiplier ]

    The BFD parameters are set for an IPv4 static route.

    NOTE:

    If interface-type interface-number is not set, local-address address must be specified.

    If none of min-rx-interval, min-tx-interval, or detect-multiplier is specified, the default values of the BFD parameters are used.

  6. Run either of the following commands as required:

    • Run ip route-static ip-address { mask | mask-length } { nexthop-address | interface-type interface-number [ nexthop-address ] | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name nexthop-address } bfd enable [ description text ]

      A public network IPv4 static route is bound to a BFD session.

    • Run ip route-static vpn-instance vpn-source-name destination-address { mask | mask-length } { nexthop-address | interface-type interface-number [ nexthop-address ] | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name nexthop-address } bfd enable [ description text ]

      A VPN network IPv4 static route is bound to a BFD session.

    NOTE:

    The outbound interface and next hop IP address specified when binding the IPv4 static route to a BFD session must be the same as those specified when configuring BFD parameters for the IPv4 static route.

  7. Run commit

    The configuration is committed.

Checking the Configurations

Run the following commands to check the previous configuration.

  • Run the display bfd session { all | discriminator discr-value } [ verbose ] command to check detailed BFD session information.

  • Run the display current-configuration | include bfd command to check configurations of BFD for static routes.

    You can check the information about a BFD session only after parameters of the BFD session are set and the BFD session is established.

    If a BFD session has been established, the status of the BFD session is Up. Run the display current-configuration | include bfd command in the system view, and you can view that the BFD session has been bound to a static route.

# Run the display bfd session command to view BFD session information.

<HUAWEI> display bfd session all
(w): State in WTR 
(*): State is invalid
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Local  Remote PeerIpAddr      State     Type      InterfaceName
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10    20     1.1.1.2         Up        S_IP_PEER   -
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
     Total UP/DOWN Session Number : 1/0

Configuring Static BFD for IPv4 Static Routes

Static BFD for IPv4 static routes enables devices to fast detect link changes, improving network reliability.

Usage Scenario

To use BFD sessions to provide link detection for IPv4 static routes on the public network, you can bind IPv4 static routes to BFD sessions. One IPv4 static route can be bound to one BFD session.

Optimal IPv4 static routes are delivered to the forwarding table for packet forwarding. However, IPv4 static routes cannot detect the status of the link to the next hop. You can bind IPv4 static routes to BFD sessions. A BFD session can fast detect changes over a link and inform the routing management system of the changes. The routing management system immediately deletes the IPv4 static route that is bound to the BFD session from the forwarding table and recalculates another active route. In this manner, fast route convergence is implemented.

Pre-configuration Tasks

Before configuring static BFD for IPv4 static routes, complete the following tasks:

  • Configure parameters of the link layer protocol and IP addresses for interfaces and ensure that the link layer protocol on the interfaces is Up.

Procedure

  • Configure a BFD Session.
    1. Run system-view

      The system view is displayed.

    2. Run bfd

      BFD is globally enabled.

    3. Run quit

      The system view is displayed.

    4. Run bfd session-name bind peer-ip ip-address

      The binding between a BFD session and a peer IP address is created and the BFD session view is displayed.

    5. Run discriminator local discr-value

      The local discriminator of a static BFD session is set.

    6. Run discriminator remote discr-value

      The remote discriminator of a static BFD session is set.

      NOTE:

      For details of optional procudures when configuring BFD session, See the NE deviceMid-End Router Configuration Guide - Network Reliability.

    7. Run commit

      The configuration is committed.

  • Associating an IPv4 Static Route with a BFD Session.
    1. Run system-view

      The system view is displayed.

    2. Run either of the following commands as required:

      • Run ip route-static ip-address { mask | mask-length } { nexthop-address | interface-type interface-number [ nexthop-address ] | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name nexthop-address } track bfd-session cfg-name [ description text ]

        A BFD session is bound to an IPv4 static route on the public network.

      • Run ip route-static vpn-instance vpn-source-name destination-address { mask | mask-length } { nexthop-address | interface-type interface-number [ nexthop-address ] | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name nexthop-address } track bfd-session cfg-name [ description text ]

        A BFD session is bound to an IPv4 static route on the VPN network.

    3. Run commit

      The configuration is committed.

Checking the Configurations

Run the following commands to check the previous configuration.

  • Run the display bfd session { all | discriminator discr-value } [ verbose ] command to check information about the BFD session.

  • Run the display current-configuration | include bfd command to check the configuration of BFD for static routes.

    You can check the information about a BFD session only after parameters of the BFD session are set and the BFD session is established.

    If a BFD session has been established, the status of the BFD session is Up. Run the display current-configuration | include bfd command in the system view, and you can see that the BFD session has been bound to a static route.

# Run the display bfd session command to view information about BFD sessions.

<HUAWEI> display bfd session all
(w): State in WTR 
(*): State is invalid
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Local  Remote PeerIpAddr      State     Type      InterfaceName
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10    20     1.1.1.2         Up        S_IP_PEER   -
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
     Total UP/DOWN Session Number : 1/0

Configuring NQA for IPv4 Static Routes

If a IPv4 static route is associated with a network quality analysis (NQA) test instance, NQA tests the link status periodically. If NQA detects a fault along the associated IPv4 static route, the IPv4 static route is deleted, and traffic is switched to another route.

Usage Scenario

On live networks, the link status of static routes must be monitored in real time so that a link switchover can be performed immediately if a link fails. Bidirectional Forwarding Detection (BFD) for IPv4 static routes can implement detection within milliseconds. However, BFD for IPv4 static routes requires that both ends of a link support BFD.

NQA for IPv4 static routes can monitor the link status of static routes as long as one end supports NQA.

If a link fails, an NQA test instance immediately detects the fault and instructs the routing management module to delete the IPv4 static route associated with the NQA test instance from the IPv4 routing table. Traffic is then forwarded over another link.

Pre-configuration Tasks

Before configuring NQA for IPv4 static routes, complete the following tasks:

  • Configure parameters of the link layer protocol and IP addresses for interfaces and ensure that the link layer protocol on the interfaces is Up.

Procedure

  • Configuring an ICMP NQA Test Instance.
    1. Run system-view

      The system view is displayed.

    2. Run nqa test-instance admin-name test-name

      An NQA test instance is created, and the test instance view is displayed.

    3. Run test-type icmp

      The test type is set to ICMP.

    4. Run destination-address ipv4 ip-address

      A destination address is configured.

      Once you configure a destination address for the NQA test instance, an NQA server is specified.

    5. Run any of the following commands:

      • start at [ yyyy/mm/dd ] hh:mm:ss [ end { at [ yyyy/mm/dd ] hh:mm:ss | delay { seconds second | hh:mm:ss } | lifetime { seconds second | hh:mm:ss } } ]
      • start delay { seconds second | hh:mm:ss } [ end { at [ yyyy/mm/dd ] hh:mm:ss | delay { seconds second | hh:mm:ss } | lifetime { seconds second | hh:mm:ss } } ]
      • start now [ end { at [ yyyy/mm/dd ] hh:mm:ss | delay { seconds second | hh:mm:ss } | lifetime { seconds second | hh:mm:ss } } ]
      • start daily hh:mm:ss to hh:mm:ss [ begin { yyyy/mm/dd | yyyy-mm-dd } ] [ end { yyyy/mm/dd | yyyy-mm-dd } ]

      An NQA test instance is started.

      NOTE:

      For details of optional procedures when configuring an ICMP NQA test instance, see the NE deviceMid-End Router Configuration Guide - System Monitor.

    6. Run commit

      The configuration is committed.

  • Associating an IPv4 Static Route with an NQA Test Instance.
    1. Run system-view

      The system view is displayed.

    2. Run either of the following commands as required:

      • Run ip route-static ip-address { mask | mask-length } { nexthop-address | interface-type interface-number [ nexthop-address ] | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name nexthop-address } [ preference preference | tag tag ] * track nqa admin-name test-name [ description text ]

        An IPv4 static route is associated with an NQA test instance in public network.

      • Run ip route-static vpn-instance vpn-source-name destination-address { mask | mask-length } { nexthop-address | interface-type interface-number [ nexthop-address ] | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name nexthop-address } [ preference preference | tag tag ] * track nqa admin-name test-name [ description text ]

        An IPv4 static route is associated with an NQA test instance in VPN network.

    3. Run commit

      The configuration is committed.

      NOTE:
      Precautions for associating a static route with an NQA test instance are as follows:
      • The destination address of an NQA test instance cannot be the destination address of an associated static route.
      • If the static route associated with one NQA test instance is associated with another NQA test instance, the association between the static route and the original NQA test instance is deleted.
      • An NQA test instance must have been created before you associate it with a static route.

Checking the Configurations

Run the following commands to check the previous configuration.

  • Run the display current-configuration | include nqa command to check the configurations of NQA for IPv4 static routes.

  • Run the display nqa results [ test-instance admin-name test-name ] command to check the NQA test results.

    NOTE:
    The NQA test results cannot be displayed automatically. You need to run the display nqa results command to view the results. By default, the command output shows the results of the latest five tests.

# Run the display current-configuration | include nqa command to view the configurations of NQA for IPv4 static routes. For example:

<HUAWEI> display current-configuration | include nqa
 ip route-static 172.16.1.3 255.255.255.255 GigabitEthernet0/1/0 track nqa admin icmp
 nqa test-instance admin icmp

Run the display nqa results command to view the NQA test results. For example:

<HUAWEI> display nqa results test-instance admin icmp
 NQA entry(admin, icmp) :testflag is active ,testtype is icmp
  1 . Test 206 result   The test is finished
   Send operation times: 15             Receive response times: 15
   Completion:success                 RTD OverThresholds number: 0
   Attempts number:1                    Drop operation number:0
   Disconnect operation number:0        Operation timeout number:0
   System busy operation number:0       Connection fail number:0
   Operation sequence errors number:0   RTT Stats errors number:0
   Destination ip address:172.16.1.2
   Min/Max/Average Completion Time: 30/50/35
   Sum/Square-Sum  Completion Time: 530/19900
   Last Good Probe Time: 2010-10-25 15:39:57.1
   Lost packet ratio: 0 %
For an ICMP NQA test, you can view the minimum, maximum, and average times for receiving ICMP Echo Reply packets displayed in Min/Max/Average Completion Time and packet loss ratio displayed in Lost packet ratio. In this example, the packet loss ratio is 0%, indicating that the link is running properly.
NOTE:

testflag is active is displayed only when the frequency interval command is configured for an NQA test instance. If the frequency interval command is not configured for an NQA test instance, the NQA test is performed only once, and testflag is inactive is displayed.

Associating EFM with IPv4 Static Routes

After EFM is associated with IPv4 static routes, the system determines whether to activate the static routes based on the EFM session status.

Usage Scenario

After EFM is associated with IPv4 static routes, the system responds to the interface Up or Down event that is triggered by the change of the EFM OAM extension status and determines whether to activate static routes. This mechanism controls route advertisement and ensures that the traffic from the remote end can be correctly forwarded.

EFM is used on links between customer edges (CEs) and user-end provider edges (UPEs) on a metropolitan area network (MAN). It helps maintain the reliability and stability of connections between a user network and a provider network. EFM monitors and detects faults in P2P Ethernet physical links or simulated links. Using EFM on a user access network is recommended.

Pre-configuration Tasks

Before associating EFM with IPv4 static routes, complete the following tasks:

  • Configure link-layer protocol parameters and IP addresses for interfaces to ensure that the link layer protocol of each interface is Up.

  • Configure EFM OAM. For configuration details, see "Network Reliability" in NE deviceMid-End Router Configuration Guide.

Procedure

  1. Run system-view

    The system view is displayed.

  2. Run either of the following commands as required:

    • Run ip route-static ip-address { mask | mask-length } { nexthop-address | interface-type interface-number [ nexthop-address ] | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name nexthop-address } [ preference preference | tag tag ] * track efm-state interface-type interface-number [ description text ]

      EFM is associated with IPv4 static routes in public network.

    • Run ip route-static vpn-instance vpn-source-name destination-address { mask | mask-length } { nexthop-address | interface-type interface-number [ nexthop-address ] | vpn-instance vpn-instance-name nexthop-address } [ preference preference | tag tag ] * track efm-state interface-type interface-number [ description text ]

      EFM is associated with IPv4 static routes in VPN network.

  3. Run commit

    The configuration is committed.

Checking the Configurations

Run the following commands to check the previous configuration.

  • Run the display efm session { all | interface interface-type interface-num command to check information about EFM OAM on a specified interface.

  • Run the display current-configuration | include efm command to check configurations of association between EFM and IPv4 static routes.

# Run the display efm session command to view information about EFM OAM on a specified interface.

<HUAWEI> display efm session all
  Interface                 EFM State                   Loopback Timeout
  ----------------------------------------------------------------------
  GigabitEthernet0/1/0      detect                      --                    

# Run the display current-configuration | include efm command to view configurations of association between EFM and IPv4 static routes.

<HUAWEI> display current-configuration | include efm
efm enable
ip route-static 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.255 GigabitEthernet0/1/1 172.16.1.2 track efm-state GigabitEthernet0/1/0
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Updated: 2019-01-14

Document ID: EDOC1100058916

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