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Configuration Guide - IP Unicast Routing

CloudEngine 8800, 7800, 6800, and 5800 V200R005C10

This document describes the configurations of IP Unicast Routing, including IP Routing, Static Route, RIP, RIPng, OSPF, OSPFv3, IPv4 IS-IS, IPv6 IS-IS, BGP, Routing Policy, and PBR.
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Huawei uses machine translation combined with human proofreading to translate this document to different languages in order to help you better understand the content of this document. Note: Even the most advanced machine translation cannot match the quality of professional translators. Huawei shall not bear any responsibility for translation accuracy and it is recommended that you refer to the English document (a link for which has been provided).
OSPF Neighbor Relationship Flapping Suppression

OSPF Neighbor Relationship Flapping Suppression

OSPF neighbor relationship flapping suppression works by delaying OSPF neighbor relationship reestablishment or setting the link cost to the maximum value (65535).

Background

If an interface carrying OSPF services alternates between Up and Down, OSPF neighbor relationship flapping occurs on the interface. During the flapping, OSPF frequently sends Hello packets to reestablish the neighbor relationship, synchronizes LSDBs, and recalculates routes. In this process, a large number of packets are exchanged, adversely affecting stability of existing neighbor relationships, OSPF services, and other OSPF-dependent services, such as LDP and BGP. OSPF neighbor relationship flapping suppression can address this problem by delaying OSPF neighbor relationship reestablishment or preventing service traffic from passing through flapping links.

Related Concepts

Flapping_event: is reported when the status of a neighbor relationship on an interface last changes from Full to ExStart or Down. A flapping_event triggers flapping detection.

Flapping_count: indicates the number of times flapping has occurred.

Detect-interval: indicates the flapping detection interval. This interval is used to determine whether to trigger a valid flapping_event.

Threshold: indicates the threshold upon which flapping suppression is triggered. When the flapping_count exceeds the threshold, flapping suppression takes effect.

Resume-interval: is used to determine whether flapping suppression exits. If the interval between two valid flapping_events is longer than the resume-interval, flapping suppression exits.

Implementation

Flapping detection

OSPF interfaces start a flapping counter. If the interval between two flapping_events is shorter than the detect-interval, a valid flapping_event is recorded, and the flapping_count increments by 1. When the flapping_count exceeds the threshold, the system determines that flapping occurs, triggers flapping suppression, and sets the flapping_count to 0. If the interval between two valid flapping_events is longer than the resume-interval before the flapping_count reaches the threshold again, the system sets the flapping_count to 0. An interface starts the suppression timer when the status of the neighbor relationship last changes to ExStart or Down.

The detect-interval, threshold, and resume-interval are configurable.

NOTE:
The value of resume-interval must be greater than that of detecting-interval.
Flapping suppression

Flapping suppression works in either Hold-down or Hold-max-cost mode on an interface:

  • Hold-down mode: In the case of frequent flooding and topology changes, the interface prevents the neighbor relationship from being reestablished during the suppression period, which minimizes LSDB synchronization attempts and packet exchanges.
  • Hold-max-cost mode: If the traffic forwarding path changes frequently, the interface uses 65535 as the cost of the flapping link during the suppression period, which prevents traffic from passing through the flapping link.

Flapping suppression can work first in Hold-down mode and then in Hold-max-cost mode after the Hold-down mode exits.

By default, the Hold-max-cost mode takes effect. The mode and suppression period can be changed manually using commands.

NOTE:
When an interface enters the flapping suppression state, all neighbor relationships on the interface enter the state accordingly.
Exiting flapping suppression

An interface exits flapping suppression in any of following scenarios:

  • The suppression timer expires.
  • The corresponding OSPF process is reset.
  • A user runs commands to force the interface to exit flapping suppression.

Typical Scenarios

Basic scenario

In Figure 5-15, the traffic forwarding path is Router A -> Router B -> Router C -> Router E before a link failure occurs. After the link between Router B and Router C fails, the forwarding path switches to Router A -> Router B -> Router D -> Router E. If the neighbor relationship between Router B and Router C frequently flaps at the early stage of the path switchover, the forwarding path will be switched frequently, causing traffic loss and affecting network stability. If the neighbor relationship flapping meets suppression conditions, flapping suppression takes effect.

  • If flapping suppression works in Hold-down mode, the neighbor relationship between Router B and Router C is prevented from being reestablished during the suppression period, in which traffic is forwarded along the path Router A -> Router B -> Router D -> Router E.
  • If flapping suppression works in Hold-max-cost mode, 65535 is used as the cost of the link between Router B and Router C during the suppression period, and traffic is forwarded along the path Router A -> Router B -> Router D -> Router E.
Figure 5-15 Flapping suppression in a basic scenario
Single-forwarding path scenario

When only one forwarding path exists on the network, the flapping of the neighbor relationship between any two devices on the path will interrupt traffic forwarding. In Figure 5-16, the traffic forwarding path is Router A -> Router B -> Router C -> Router E. If the neighbor relationship between Router B and Router C flaps and the flapping meets suppression conditions, flapping suppression takes effect. However, if the neighbor relationship between Router B and Router C is prevented from being reestablished, the whole network will be divided. Therefore, the Hold-max-cost mode (rather than the Hold-down mode) is recommended. If flapping suppression works in Hold-max-cost mode, 65535 is used as the cost of the link between Router B and Router C during the suppression period. After the network stabilizes and the suppression timer expires, the link is restored.

NOTE:

By default, the Hold-max-cost mode takes effect.

Figure 5-16 Flapping suppression in a single-forwarding path scenario
Broadcast scenario

In Figure 5-17, four devices are deployed on the same broadcast network using switches, and the devices are broadcast network neighbors. If Router C flaps due to a link failure and Router A and Router B were deployed at different time (Router A was deployed earlier for example) or the flapping suppression parameters on Router A and Router B are different, Router A first detects the flapping and suppresses Router C. Consequently, the Hello packets sent by Router A do not carry Router C's router ID. However, Router B has not detected the flapping yet and still considers Router C a valid node. As a result, the DR candidates identified by Router A are Router B and Router D, whereas the DR candidates identified by Router B are Router A, Router C, and Router D. Different DR candidates result in different DR election results, which may lead to route calculation errors. To prevent this problem in scenarios where an interface has multiple neighbors, such as on a broadcast, P2MP, or NBMA network, all neighbors on the interface are suppressed when the status of a neighbor relationship last changes to ExStart or Down. Specifically, if Router C flaps, Router A, Router B, and Router D on the broadcast network are all suppressed. After the network stabilizes and the suppression timer expires, Router A, Router B, and Router D are restored to the normal state.

Figure 5-17 Flapping suppression on a broadcast network
Multi-area scenario

In Figure 5-18, Router A, Router B, Router C, Router E, and Router F are connected in area 1, and Router B, Router D, and Router E are connected in the backbone area (Area 0). Traffic from Router A to Router F is preferentially forwarded along an intra-area route. That is, the forwarding path is Router A -> Router B -> Router C -> Router E -> Router F. When the neighbor relationship between Router B and Router C flaps and the flapping meets suppression conditions, flapping suppression takes effect in the default mode (Hold-max-cost). Consequently, 65535 is used as the cost of the link between Router B and Router C. However, the forwarding path remains unchanged because intra-area routes take precedence over inter-area routes during route selection according to OSPF route selection rules. To prevent traffic loss in multi-area scenarios, you need to configure the Hold-down mode to prevent the neighbor relationship between Router B and Router C from being reestablished during the suppression period. During this period, traffic is forwarded along the path Router A -> Router B -> Router D -> Router E -> Router F.

NOTE:

By default, the Hold-max-cost mode takes effect. The mode can be changed to Hold-down manually using commands.

Figure 5-18 Flapping suppression in a multi-area scenario
Scenario with both LDP-IGP synchronization and OSPF neighbor relationship flapping suppression configured

In Figure 5-19, if the link between PE1 and P1 fails, an LDP LSP switchover is implemented immediately, causing the original LDP LSP to be deleted before a new LDP LSP is established. To prevent traffic loss, LDP-IGP synchronization needs to be configured. With LDP-IGP synchronization, 65535 is used as the cost of the new LSP to be established. After the new LSP is established, the original cost takes effect. Consequently, the original LSP is deleted, and LDP traffic is forwarded along the new LSP.

Both LDP-IGP synchronization and OSPF neighbor relationship flapping suppression work in either Hold-down or Hold-max-cost mode. If both functions are configured, the Hold-down mode takes precedence over the Hold-max-cost mode, followed by the configured link cost. Table 5-15 lists the suppression modes that take effect in different situations.

Table 5-15 Rules for selecting suppression modes in different situations
LDP-IGP Synchronization/OSPF Neighbor Relationship Flapping Suppression Mode LDP-IGP Synchronization in Hold-down Mode LDP-IGP Synchronization in Hold-max-cost Mode Exiting LDP-IGP Synchronization Suppression

OSPF Neighbor Relationship Flapping Suppression in Hold-down Mode

Hold-down

Hold-down

Hold-down

OSPF Neighbor Relationship Flapping Suppression in Hold-max-cost Mode

Hold-down

Hold-max-cost

Hold-max-cost

Exiting OSPF Neighbor Relationship Flapping Suppression

Hold-down

Hold-max-cost

Exiting LDP-IGP synchronization and OSPF neighbor relationship flapping suppression

For example, in Figure 5-19, the link between PE1 and P1 frequently flaps, and both LDP-IGP synchronization and OSPF neighbor relationship flapping suppression are configured. In this case, the suppression mode is selected based on the above rules. No matter which mode (Hold-down or Hold-max-cost) is selected, the traffic is switched to the forwarding path PE1 -> P4 -> P3 -> PE2.

Figure 5-19 Scenario with both LDP-IGP synchronization and OSPF neighbor relationship flapping suppression configured
Scenario with both bit-error-triggered protection switching and OSPF neighbor relationship flapping suppression configured

If a link has a poor link quality, services transmitted along it may be adversely affected. If bit-error-triggered protection switching is configured and the bit error rate (BER) along a link exceeds a specified value, a bit error event is reported, and the cost of the link is set to 65535, triggering route reselection. Consequently, service traffic is switched to the backup link. If both bit-error-triggered protection switching and OSPF neighbor relationship flapping suppression are configured, they both take effect. The Hold-down mode takes precedence over the Hold-max-cost mode, followed by the configured link cost.

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Updated: 2019-04-20

Document ID: EDOC1100074760

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